What are the two main categories of carbohydrate?

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Macronutrient Recap


Using your text answer the following as BRIEFLY as possible. Clearly identify the number of the question you are answering. Be sure to answer all parts of each question.

1. What is the primary function of carbohydrate?

2. What are the two main categories of carbohydrate?

3. What are the subcategories in each of the two main categories of carbohydrate?

4. What is the storage form of carbohydrate in plants and in animals?

5. How does the carbohydrate content (fiber, sugar, refined and whole grains) of the current American diet compare with the recommendations for the types and amounts of carbohydrate that should be consumed?

6. What does enriched mean?

7. What does “whole grain” mean?

8. What is the primary source of sugar in the American diet?

9. What are three food sources and health benefits of fiber?

10. Briefly describe the digestion of carbohydrate that occurs in the GI tract starting in the mouth.

11. What are the causes and treatments for the two different types of diabetes?

12. What is the cause, symptoms and treatment for lactose intolerance?

13. How is blood glucose regulated in the body?

14. What happens to excess glucose (where does it go?) that is removed from the blood in the body’s attempt to normalize blood glucose?

15. How does the concept of “good” vs. “bad” carbohydrate relate to the term nutrient density?

16. List three examples of “bad” carbohydrates.

17. List two functions of fat in food.

18. List three functions of fat in the body.

19. Which category of lipids is most prevalent in food and in the body?

20. List three types of dietary fat that should be limited.

21. List three types of dietary fat that are considered to be healthy.

22. Why does the body package fat as lipoproteins?

23. Which type of lipoprotein is considered MORE healthy and why?

24. Which type of lipoprotein is considered LESS healthy and why?

25. List four risk factors for heart disease that cannot be modified.

26. List five risk factors for heart disease that can be modified.

27. List eight things you can do to minimize your risk for heart disease.

28. List five functions of protein in the body.

29. List three different types of vegetarians and what they do/do not eat.

30. List four reasons why people may choose to be vegetarian.

31. How does the American diet compare with the recommendations for amount of protein to consume?

32. Explain the difference between a complete and incomplete protein. List a source of complete and incomplete protein that you consume.

33. Define the term “complementary proteins” and provide an example.

34. At what time of your life were you in positive nitrogen balance? Explain your answer.


35. Take the Self-Assessment on page 201 and provide a brief, written summary of your results.

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