Please no plagiarism and make sure you are able to access all resource on your own before you bid. One of the references must come from Sue, D. W., & Sue, D. (2016). You are expected to include at least one scholarly and peer-reviewed resource outside of those provided in the readings for each discussion post. Read a selection of your colleagues’ postings. I need this completed by 05/11/18 at 7pm. Please put some thought into each responses. There are 3 responses needed in this post. Support each response with references.
Respond by Day 5 to at least two of your colleagues’ postings (note: the colleagues to whom you respond should have chosen the opposite VFE® than you) in one or more of the following ways:
· Provide an alternative perspective.
· Share an insight from having read your colleague’s posting.
· Expand on your colleague’s posting.
Please thoroughly read the Discussion Posting and Response Rubric attached to evaluate both the posts and responses. There are four components evaluated for each Discussion Post and Response.
1. Responsiveness to Discussion Question /9
2. Critical Thinking, Analysis, and Synthesis /9
3. Professionalism of Writing /5
4. Responsiveness to Peers /9
To get the highest grade possible, ask yourself if you have SURPASSED the following standards as you re-read your posts BEFORE submitting them:
1. Response to Peers: Do my peer responses indicate that I have read, thought about, and selectively responded to my colleague’s discussion posts in a complex way? Are my responses engaging, insightful, reflective of current events, or relevant to some experience I have had? Rather than just demonstrating agreement with the ideas presented by a colleague, or randomly quoting some resource in order to satisfy a formulaic inclusion of a citation and a reference, you are encouraged to provide an engaging response post which specifically builds upon the ideas of your colleague in an original and substantial manner, including relevant professional resources that go beyond what you are required to read for the course.
1. (A. Ola)
Culturally competent counselors have an awareness that clients will bring their unique cultural worldview to the therapeutic session (Arredondo et al., 1996; Hays, 2016; Pachankis & Goldfried, 2004; Powers & Kalodner, 2016). The counselor must have self-awareness, knowledge, and skills to be able to efficiently work with culturally diverse clients (Arredondo et al., 1996). He or she must be cognizant of culturally appropriate ways to adapt their theoretical orientation to meet the unique needs of clients, who may be struggling with issues of identity and cultural expectations, in the context of historical oppression and prejudice (Hays, 2016; Laureate Education, 2012h; Laureate Education, 2012i). The Virtual Field Experience (VFE) involved using Cognitive Behavioral Therapy (CBT) and Affirmative Therapy (AT) to counsel and analysis the counseling sessions between two counselors and their individual clients (Laureate Education, 2012h; Laureate Education, 2012i; Powers & Kalodner, 2016).
The Virtual Field Experience (VFE) videos and analysis throughout each session provided feedback “in real time.” The pauses to processing the sessions was a meaningful way to explore both the worldview and theoretical orientation of the counselors, Dr. Ford and Dr. Patterson and the nonverbal communication and cultural worldviews of the clients (Laureate Education, 2012h; Laureate Education, 2012i). As a visual learner, it was helpful for me to observe as Dr. Nabor asked questions of each therapist and gave feedback right away. The VFE videos also gave me the opportunity to asses my beliefs about the conceptualization of the presenting issues, versus the viewpoint of the professional counselor, through the lens of his or her therapeutic orientation.
Cognitive Behavioral Therapy was utilized to alter Luis’ family schema, disrupt irrational beliefs, and make him aware of the possibility for a more balanced cultural identity that incorporates both his ideal and his historical, cultural self (Gehart & Turtle, 2003; Laureate Education, 2012h; Powers & Kalodner, 2016). Although Dr. Ford has general knowledge of cultural norms of Hispanic American men, Luis is working hard to be the opposite of that norm (Laureate Education, 2012h). Through Dr. Ford’s questioning, I was able to find out what “neo-machista” meant to Luis (Laureate Education, 2012h, 20:43 minutes). Finding a balance between Luis’ family’s cultural beliefs of machismo and cultural pride, and his desired identity as an egalitarian, intercultural husband was a significant goal for Luis (Laureate Education, 2012h).
From the Affirming Therapy VFE video observations, I gained an understanding of the importance of observing the nonverbal communication of the client and inquiring what those meant for Tracy (Laureate Education, 2012i). In Dr. Patterson’s work with Tracy, I observed her planting possibilities based on the client’s goals (Laureate Education, 2012i, 41:00 mins). While her persistence was relatively uncomfortable for the client, she was affirming that Tracy’s questioning was okay throughout the session (Laureate Education, 2012i). The use of affirmation provided an atmosphere for Tracy to consider possibilities for a future outside of the prescribed norms of her familial expectations (Laureate Education, 2012i; Pachankis & Goldfried, 2004). Dr. Patterson’s use of words, aligned with her purpose of having them share a common vocabulary (Laureate Education, 2012i, 38:46 minutes), even when the nonverbal communication from Tracy showed her obvious discomfort (Laureate Education, 2012i). From the interaction between Dr. Nabors and Dr. Patterson, the major premise I came to understand is that cultural issues of identity can be complex (Pachankis & Goldfried, 2004). A culturally sensitive counselor must complete a holistic assessment of the client, their verbal and nonverbal communication and desired goals of treatment, to be sure not to push a client too fast or hold a client back from change, without considering the unique nature of their circumstances (Pachankis & Goldfried, 2004).
Influence on Future Counseling Practice
The VFE videos provided insights that will be useful for working with clients in my future practice (Laureate Education, 2012h; Laureate Education, 2012i). Creating a safe place for clients to explore thoughts, feelings, and behaviors is a critical component of therapy (Wubbolding, 2015; Laureate Education, 2012i, 41:10 minutes; Pachankis & Goldfried, 2004; Powers & Kalodner, 2016). Both VFE videos provided an environment where the exploration of concepts, beliefs and cultural expectations could in an alternate reality take place. In my practice, I will establish rapport by setting a therapeutic environment where the free sharing of concepts, ideas, and beliefs are not only acceptable but also explored without judgment (Hays, 2016; Pachankis & Goldfried, 2004). As I actively listen for themes of the client’s schema and explore what could be, using an integrated approach, a therapeutic bond of trust and openness can take place more readily (Hays, 1996; Hays, 2016; Pachankis & Goldfried, 2004; Powers & Kalodner, 2016).
Both Cognitive Behavioral Therapy and Affirming Therapy integrate well theoretically when counseling culturally diverse populations (Pachankis & Goldfried, 2004; Powers & Kalodner, 2016). Counselors must be flexible in the application of his or her theoretical orientation in counseling with clients (Hays, 2016; Pachankis & Goldfried, 2004). Self-awareness, knowledge, and skills with diverse populations will enlighten practitioners on the general practices, beliefs, and attitudes of diverse clients (Arredondo, 1996). However, it is also essential for the therapist to possess an awareness that each individual is unique, and their cultural worldview may reflect different values than their identifiable characteristics (Sue & Sue, 2016).
Arredondo, P., Toporek, M. S., Brown, S., Jones, J., Locke, D. C., Sanchez, J. and Stadler, H. (1996) Operationalization of the Multicultural Counseling Competencies. AMCD: Alexandria, VA.
Gehart, D. R., & Tuttle, A. R. (2003). Theory-based treatment planning for marriage and family therapists. Belmont, CA: Brooks/Cole.
Hays, P. A. (1995). Multicultural applications of cognitive-behavior therapy. Professional Psychology: Research and Practice, 26(3), 309–315. Retrieved from the Walden Library databases.
Hays, P. A. (2016). Addressing cultural complexities in practice: Assessment, diagnosis, and
therapy(3rd ed.). Washington, DC: American Psychological Association.
Laureate Education, Inc. (Executive Producer). (2012h). Virtual Field ExperienceTM: Adaptation of CBT. Baltimore, MD: Author.
Laureate Education, Inc. (Executive Producer). (2012i). Virtual Field ExperienceTM: Affirmative therapy. Baltimore, MD: Author.
Pachankis, J. E. & Goldfried, M. R. (2004). Clinical issues in working with lesbian, gay, and bisexual clients. Psychotherapy: Theory, Research, Practice, Training, 41(3), 227–246. Retrieved from the Walden Library databases.
Powers, Y. O., & Kalodner, C. R. (2016). Cognitive-behavioral theories. In D. Capuzzi & M. D. Stauffer (Eds.), Counseling and psychotherapy: Theories and interventions (6th ed., pp. 227-252). Alexandria, VA: American Counseling Association.
Sue, D. W., & Sue, D. (2016). Counseling the culturally diverse: Theory and practice (7th ed.). Hoboken, NJ: Wiley.
Wubbolding, R. E. (2016). Reality therapy/choice theory. In D. Capuzzi & M. D. Stauffer (Eds.), Counseling and psychotherapy: Theories and interventions (6th ed., pp. 311-338). Alexandria, VA: American Counseling Association.
2. (F. Pie)
Cognitive Behavior Therapy (CBT) can be very effective in helping clients to talk through depressive concerns. There are some experts that believe CBT is most effective when combined with the use of other theories that have applicable constructs to the presenting issue of the client (Hays, 2016). The goal of CBT is to guide the individual into recognizing inaccurate or destructive thinking in order to develop clarity and more effective responses (Sue & Sue, 2016; Hays, 2016). Although CBT can be used to address many challenging concerns that a client may have, there has been significant evidence of its usefulness for mental disorders that can be triggered by stress or anxiety. Some of those conditions may be depression, acute anxiety disorder, PTSD, or eating disorders (Hays, 1995).
Virtual Field Experience Insight
The Virtual Field Experience (VFE) videos provided the opportunity to observe the unfolding of the use the theories. One thing that stood out the most for me is that in both VFE videos the therapists were able to provide a review of their own sessions. This is significant to me because practicing to review the sessions is a great tool for perfecting the skills to help the clients that are being serviced. When we are able to look back to observe body language, tones, and see the perception of our words from a different angle then we may catch something that we were unable to detect in the moment. Dr. Ford used CBT to allow Louise to receive another viewpoint of his own situation. He wanted him to realize that he has more power than what he was presently tapping into (Laureate, 2012h). This was revelatory because that is the whole premise of the CBT therapy. Louise was having some concerns for depression according to Dr. Ford, which may have been stimulated from the challenges that he was experiencing in his marriage. The client was a child of divorce and the thought of his marriage ending was an overwhelming thought. He did not want his children to experience the same heartache he did as a child. Dr. Ford was able to shed some light on the way that Louise viewed is circumstance, especially since most of the conflicts that he and his wife were having derived from their cultural differences. It was also intriguing that Dr. Ford wanted him to learn to stand up for himself more and be assertive in asking for what he wanted. Louise needed to determine what was acceptable in his life but he just did not know how to state in a way that was not demanding. It was important to him not to behave in a demanding manner because that is what he had seen in his father. Dr. Ford could have been presumptuous in stating that Louise was depressed because depression can be prone in some Hispanic males (Hays, 1995). It is important for the counselors to look for potential weaknesses in diagnosis, cultural competency, and the theory that is being used (Walman & Creed & Beck, 2016).
Future Counseling Practice
As a future counselor I want to be able to guild clients into a new personal revelation that will invoke the change that they desire. Watching the use of the CBT during the VFE helped me to see all the more how effective the intervention tools can be (Laureate, 2012h). Sometimes an individual may just need to hear something another away so that they can embrace it or even from another person. I also am realizing more that I would like to implement the use of video recording during some of the sessions that I conduct. I see this as a great tool to help grow and mature as a counselor. I also want to ensure that I am measuring the individual needs of the client while taking consideration for their cultural makeup (Sue & Sue, 2016).
A counselor that is well skilled in the use of culturally competent interventions affords their clients the opportunity to thrive (Hays, 2016). The client is often dependent on the counseling process because this may be their final hope to overcome the challenges that may be consuming their life. Theories like CBT can relieve some of the pressure and weightiness of their circumstance because they are able to perceive it in new light. It is imperative that the counselor work to ensure that they are culturally aware and applying the theories properly.
Hays, P. A. (2016). Addressing cultural complexities in practice: Assessment, diagnosis, and therapy (3rd ed.). Washington, DC: American Psychological Association.
Hays, P. A. (1995). Multicultural applications of cognitive-behavior therapy. Professional Psychology: Research and Practice, 26(3), 309–315.
Waltman, S. H., Creed, T. A., & Beck, A. T. (2016). Are the effects of cognitive behavior therapy for depression falling? review and critique of the evidence. Clinical Psychology: Science and Practice, 23(2), 113-122.
Sue, D. W., & Sue, D. (2016). Counseling the culturally diverse: Theory and practice (7th ed.). Hoboken, NJ: Wiley.
3. (K. Den)
Virtual Field Experience Recap
The Virtual Field Experience videos were interesting to watch. Studies have shown that people of the nondominated culture disproportionately terminate counseling before completion of treatment often citing cultural bias as the reason (Malott, Havlik, Palacios, & Lewis, 2014). Watching counselors practice their craft in a culturally sensitive way was more insightful than reading about how to do this. Stopping the counseling sessions to discuss why the counselor approached it in the way they had or asked the questions they had was helpful as well. Learning the rationale behind why they asked a particular question or approached a specific topic helped further demonstrate why being culturally competent is important. This discussion will provide a summary of insights had or information gained from viewing the Virtual Field Experience videos and explain how these insights or information will assist in future counseling practice.
Summary of Insights or Information Gained
Two insights I gained from watching the Virtual Field Experience videos are to have knowledge of a client’s culture, but don’t assume that it’s a cultural issue causing their problems and how important assessment of yourself is. Having knowledge of a client’s culture includes being aware of any microaggressions which might occur. For instance, I noticed when watching the video where Dr. Patterson counsels Tracy, I recall thinking, “She dresses like a butch lesbian.” This thought is a microaggression. Women are often criticized about their ways of dress while men are criticized about their ways of behaving when they go against the heteronormative ideal (Nadal, 2013). While I am aware of gay, lesbian, and bisexual culture and am an ally to those who are gay, lesbian, or bisexual, I still find myself committing microaggressions against them without realizing it. This is why continually assessing oneself is so important. In the video with Dr. Ford and Luis, Dr. Ford doesn’t assume that Luis subscribes to Latin cultural values of what males are supposed to be until Luis brings it up. Because people who identify as Latino or Hispanic are panethnic and come from such vastly different cultures, it’s important not to make assumptions about how they identify within that culture as the way they view themselves is reflective of their ethnic, cultural, social, or political identity (Delgado-Romero, 2001).
How This Will Assist in Future Practice
Having these insights helps inform for future practice. Just because someone who looks a certain way or dresses a certain way walks into the office for therapy, does not mean that the culturally biased conclusions I jump to simply by looking at them are correct. Those assumptions are probably wrong. Learning not to judge people based upon appearance and culture is important. It’s important to have knowledge of different cultures so one can be sensitive to the worldview people of that culture have. Being aware that many Latino males subscribe to the notion of masschismo is important. However, just because a Hispanic male wakes into the office, one shouldn’t assume that he subscribes to masschismo or that not subscribing to masschismo is what is causing his issues. It’s important that a counselor let the client guide them as to whether culture is causing the issue or if it’s something else, such as depression from having served overseas. Culture should be used as a guide with which to interpret the world through the client’s eyes, not as something to create problems from which are not there. If a black woman presents with depression, it may be because of interpersonal issues within the family, and not due to experiencing systemic racism. However, being aware of the part of systemic racism inherent in the system is important because it might be the cause. It’s important to let the client guide the therapist there though and not assume the issue is culturally related.
The Virtual Field Experience was very helpful in showing culturally sensitive approaches to therapy. The discussions as to why Dr. Ford and Dr. Patterson approached a client a particular way were helpful in learning why it’s so important to be culturally sensitive. The worldviews of both clients were different from my own and seeing how to approach a client who is different help me to see where I need improvement in being more culturally sensitive.
Delgado-Romero, E. A. (2001). Counseling a Hispanic/Latino client—Mr. X. Journal of Mental Health Counseling, 23(3), 207-221.
Malott, K. M., Havlik, S., Palacios, L. H., & Lewis, C. C. (2014). White Counseling Supervisees’ Experiences Working with Latino Youth: A Phenomenological Study. Multicultural Perspectives,16(3), 133-140.
Nadal, K. L. (2013). That’s So Gay! Microagressions and the Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual, and Transgendered Community. American Psychological Association.
· Hays, P. A. (1995). Multicultural applications of cognitive-behavior therapy. Professional Psychology: Research and Practice, 26(3), 309–315.
Retrieved from the Walden Library databases.
· AMCD multicultural counseling competences. (1996). Retrieved from http://www.counseling.org/Resources/Competencies/Multcultural_Competencies.pdf
· Laureate Education, Inc. (Executive Producer). (2012i). Virtual Field ExperienceTM: Affirmative therapy. Baltimore, MD: Author.
Note: The approximate length of this media piece is 42 minutes.
Accessible player –Downloads– Download Video w/CC Download Audio Download Transcript
· Laureate Education, Inc. (Executive Producer). (2012h). Virtual Field ExperienceTM: Adaptation of CBT. Baltimore, MD: Author.
Note: The approximate length of this media piece is 38 minutes.
Accessible player –Downloads– Download Video w/CC Download Audio Download Transcript