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Submit a short discussion memo (three pages) that analyzes the topic as well connects history and contemporary issues. The discussion memo and feedback paper should be Standard 1-inch margins, 12-point font, double spaced writing, free of grammatical and spelling errors. Appropriate use of varied references is required; this includes interviews, newspaper, magazines and books (Chicago / MLA). Papers will be subject to checks for plagiarism.

How to Write an Effective Memo

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Memo (short for memorandum) is a business-oriented style that is best suited for interoffice or intercolleague correspondence. More informal in tone and organization than a letter, memos are generally used to provide or ask for information, announce a new policy, update on personnel transfers, or for any other internal issues.

Elements of an Effective Memo

An effective memo:

  •   grabs the reader’s attention
  •   provides information, makes a recommendation, or asks for action
  •   supports your position or explains benefits to reader
  •   mentions next steps and deadlines
    When composing a memo, always take the four-step approach to writing: plan what you want to say, write a draft, revise the draft, and edit.
    Types of Memos
    There are four types of memos you might have to write, each with its own organizational format: information, problem-solving, persuasion, and internal memo proposal.
    Information Memo
  •   used to deliver or request information or assistance
  •   first paragraph provides main idea
  •   second paragraph expands on the details
  •   third paragraph outlines the action required
    Problem-solving Memo
  •   suggests a specific action to improve a situation
  •   first paragraph states the problem
  •   second paragraph analyzes the problem
  •   third paragraph makes a recommendation
  •   when making a recommendation, include not only the positive details but also the drawbacks and diffuse them yourself
    Persuasion Memo
  •   used to encourage the reader to undertake an action he or she doesn’t have to take
  •   first paragraph begins with an agreeable point
  •   second paragraph introduces the idea
  •   third paragraph states benefits to the reader


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fourth paragraph outlines the action required fifth paragraph ends with a call to action

Internal Memo Proposal

  •   used to convey suggestions to senior management
  •   first paragraph states reason for writing
  •   second paragraph outlines present situation and states writer’s
  •   third paragraph describes advantage(s)
  •   fourth paragraph mentions and diffuses disadvantage(s)
  •   fifth paragraph ends with a call to action
    Memo Parts
    More informal in appearance and tone than a letter, a memo is set up in a special format. Headings, lists, tables or graphs are often used to make the information more readable.
    All memos consist of two sections: the heading and the body. The heading indicates who is writing to whom, when, and why. The heading should include the following parts:
    1. To
  •   lists the names of everyone who will receive the memo
  •   includes the first and last name and titles or departments of the
    recipients for formal memos, memos to superiors, or if everyone
    on the list does not know each other
  •   if all recipients know each other’s names and positions, use just
    the first initial and last name of each recipient
  •   can be listed alphabetically or by rank
  •   if it is not possible to fit all the names in the To: area, use the
    phrase “See distribution list”
  •   at the end of the memo add the word “Distribution” and then list
    the names of the people who will receive a copy of the memo
  •   arrange the names by rank, department or alphabetically
    2. From
  •   lists the name of the writer(s) in the same way as the name(s) of the recipient(s)
  •   there is no complimentary close or signature line, but authors initial their names on the From: line
    3. Date
  •   lists the month, date, and year the memo was written
  •   do not use abbreviations
  •   avoid using numbers for months and days

4. Re: or Subject

  •   indicates the main subject of the letter
  •   should be as specific and concise as possible 5. Ccorc
  •   lists those readers who should have a copy of the memo for their information or reference but are not expected to carry out the same action as the recipients listed in the To: line
  •  “cc” can also be placed at the end of the memo below the distribution list (if used)
    The body of the memo conveys the message and generally consists of 4 parts:
    1. Introduction

states the general problem or main idea

2. Statement of facts
states the facts or discusses the problem or issue

3. Argument
explains importance or relevance of facts

4. Conclusion

  •   summarizes the main idea, suggests or requests action
  •   memos do not have a complimentary close or signature line
  •   memos end with a call to action

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