26) Organizational commitment is a person’s attitudes towards
A) his or her specific job.
B) his or her supervisor.
C) the entire organization.
D) meeting coworkers’ needs.
27) When managers become aware of evidence of potential discrimination, they need to
A) act proactively to address the potential problem.
B) perhaps change the organization’s policies and practices.
C) pay immediate attention.
D) All of the above
28) ________ helped Effective Diversity Practices (EDP) companies
meet the challenge of effectively managing diversity.
A) Ongoing diversity training
B) Top management commitment
C) Recruiting and hiring diverse employees
D) All of the above
29) Which of the following statements concerning perception is not true?
A) Accurate perceptions are the prerequisite for good decisions.
B) Decisions regarding compensating organizational members do not depend on perception.
C) Virtually every decision that a manager makes depends on his or her perceptions.
D) When perceptions are inaccurate, managers make faulty decisions that hurt the employees and the organization.
30) The Business-Higher Education Forum is seeking to promote
A) diversity in the college admissions process.
B) conformance to social norms.
C) impression management training.
D) restrictions on affirmative action programs in higher education.
31) ________ is an attempt to control the perceptions or impressions of others.
A) Impression management
B) Situational manipulation
C) Perceptual targeting
32) The situation is an important characteristic of perception because it
A) defines what behavior is observed.
B) provides additional information about the perceiver.
C) provides the perceiver with additional information to use in interpreting the target.
D) changes how the situation is objectively perceived.
33) Which of the following jobs are being outsourced?
A) Software designs
D) All of the above
34) To use positive reinforcement to facilitate the learning of desired behaviors, managers need to determine what consequences are
A) unusual or extraordinary.
B) considered discriminatory and preferential treatment.
C) the least expensive.
D) considered positive by a given worker.
35) The factors stressed in social learning theory that influence learning in organizations include all of the following except
B) vicarious learning.
C) reactive learning.
36) Which of the following must be met for vicarious learning to take place?
A) The learner must observe the model as he or she performs the behavior.
B) The learner must have the skills and abilities to perform the behavior.
C) The learner must remember the behavior.
D) All of the above
37) Learning by doing is referred to as
B) experiential learning.
C) operant conditioning.
D) vicarious learning.
38) According to Peter Senge, all of the following except ________ are key activities central to a learning organization.
A) communicating a shared vision for the organization as a whole
B) encouraging learning in groups and teams
C) encouraging low self-efficacy
D) encouraging system thinking
39) All of the following except ________ are key parts to the
definition of work motivation.
A) level of effort
B) level of persistence
C) order of functionality
D) direction of behavior
40) The key challenge facing managers in terms of motivation is how to encourage employees to
A) shift from extrinsic to intrinsic work behavior.
B) contribute inputs to their jobs and to the organization.
C) expect more outcomes from the job.
D) All of the above
41) According to the hierarchy of needs, the most basic needs are
A) safety and self-actualization.
B) analytical and pathological.
C) physiological and safety.
D) psychological and psychosocial.
42) ________ is concerned with how employees make choices among alternative behaviors and levels of effort.
A) Expectancy theory
B) Need theory
C) ERG theory
D) Equity theory
43) ________ refers to the desirability of an outcome to an
44) ________ involves the perceived fairness of the distribution of outcomes in organizations, such as pay or promotions.
A) Interpersonal justice
B) Distributive justice
C) Informational justice
D) Procedural justice
45) ________ was a driving force in the movement to enrich jobs.
A Maslow’s hierarchy of needs theory
B) Herzberg’s motivator-hygiene theory
C) Hackman and Oldham’s job characteristics model
D) Salancik and Pfeffer’s social information processing model
46) In the job characteristics model, the extent to which a job involves performing a whole piece of work from beginning to end is referred to as
A) task significance.
B) task identity.
47) All of the following approaches to job design focus on some degree of intrinsic motivation except
A) job enrichment.
B) social information processing.
C) the job characteristics model.
D) scientific management.
48) ________ postulates that people tend to classify themselves and others into social categories, such as being members of a certain group or organization.
A) The societal schematic
B) Social identity theory
C) The social information processing model
D) The job characteristics model
49) ________ focuses on identifying the types of goals that are most effective in producing high levels of motivation and performance and why goals have these effects.
A) Scientific management
B) The job characteristics model
C) Goal-setting theory
D) Social identity theory
50) The use of specific and difficult goals, if not properly monitored, could reduce
A) intrinsic motivation.
B) cordial behavior.
C) extrinsic motivation.
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