Study guide for bio | Biology homework help

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Unit 1

  Know the properties of life, examples of each property

  Cell theory and hierarchy of life. : know the figure with shows molecules, cells, tissues, organs, organisms, etc….  also know how life is categorized by taxonomy

  know what evolution is and how populations evolve.  

  know the difference between prokaryotes and eukaryotes

  How is science done?  What are the two methods?  What are the steps of the scientific method?

 Unit 2

  Describe atomic structure

  What are the different types of bonds?  How are they each formed?  know the difference between a polar and non-polar bond and how that affects the ability of the molecule to dissolve in water (understand the difference between a hydrophobic and hydrophilic molecule)

  Why is carbon important?  What makes carbon a good molecule for biological material?

  What is an acid, what is a base and what is buffer?

  what types of reactions make and break complex molecules?

  For each of the major macromolecules (carbs, lipids, proteins, nucleic acids), know: monomer structure, polymer structure, examples, functions, types of bonds used to form them 

 especially know the protein structure levels, the bonds that stabilize proteins, know what an amino acid is and its structure

Unit 3

  What is the structure of a eukaryotic cell?

  What limits cell size?  What are the implications of this as a multicellular organism?

  What is the nucleus, nucleolus, what is each responsible for?

  What are ribosomes, where are they found?  what do they do?

  What is the ER for?  What are the different types of ER, what does each type do?

  What is the function of the golgi

  What are lysosomes and peroxisomes?  What does each do?  What is a vacuole?

  What are the structures and functions of the mitochondria and chloroplast?  How are these two organelles similar? 

  what is the function of the cytoskeleton

  Describe the structure of the plasma membrane.  Why is a fluid mosaic? 

  What types of proteins are bound to the membrane

  Why are membrane proteins important?  How can we utilize them in medicine?

  What factors affect the fluidity of the membrane?

  How are cells connected to one another?  What are the molecules that help establish those connections? 

  What is the Extracellular matrix (ECM)? what kinds of molecules are found in the ECM? Why are these molecules important?

  Describe the various processes of membrane transport:

  what substances passively diffuse across the membrane?

  which types of molecules have moderate permeability?  low and very low permeability?

  how does water get across the membrane?

  What are the different types of passive transport?

  Describe the types of transporters.

  describe the process of osmosis, be prepared to use the terms hypotonichypertonic and isotonic and be able to describe where water will move across the membrane.

  Describe active transport, and membrane assisted transport

Cell Transport

  What are the differences between passive and active transport?

  Describe simple vs facilitated diffusion

  describe osmosis, be prepared to use the terms hypotonic, isotonic, hypertonic

  what is membrane-assisted transport?  Is this an active or passive process?


  How do enzymes affect chemical reactions?  What is activation energy? How do enzymes function, why is their shape important?

  How does competitive and non-competitive inhibition affect this?  How might you overcome these types of inhibition?

  What is ATP: describe its structure and function

  What is the difference between an anabolic and catabolic reaction?

Cell Communication

  What is cell communication?  What is it used for?  What is a ligand? receptor?

  How are signals transferred between cells?  Know the difference between each mechanism (autocrineparacrine, etc..).

  What are the 3 stages of cell signaling?

  What are the different types of receptors, how does each work?  Know how an enzyme linked, GPCR and ligand-gated ion channel works (DETAILS ARE CRITICAL). 

  What is a kinase, a phosphatase? 

  Know the function of second messengers, know how cAMP is used as a second messenger.  What is adenylyl cyclase, PKA, phosphodiesterase?

Cell Respiration

  Describe the steps of Cellular Respiration, know where each step occurs, the products, the reactants, how much ATP,NADH, or FADH2 is produced in each step.  Know the overall chemical equation for respiration.  When is each reactant used?  When is each product made?  Understand how ATP synthase works.

  How do organisms make ATP in the absence of oxygen? 

  How are biofuels produced?

  Describe in detail the process of fermentation in animal cells and in yeast.  Why is the conversion of pyruvate to lactate or ethanol necessary?



  How does photosynthesis work

 What are the products and bi-products of photosynthesis

 Light and Dark reactions in details

 Differences between C3, C4 and CAM plants and in what type/part of cell the two phases of photosynthesis happen in these plants

 Where is the NAPH and ATP present and how are they recycled

 Role of RuBiSCo in Photosynthesis and Photorespiration

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