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Data Collection and Survey Instrument………………………………………………….


Analysis of Results…………………………………………………………………………

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Summary, Conclusion and Recommendation…………………………………………….






Overdue Books in Jubail University College


Jubail University was established in the year 2006 and is affiliated to the royal commission of Jubail and Yanbu. Its main purpose is to provide the Royal commission with the necessary human resources. Additionally, the university seeks to add manpower for Saudi since the government intends to leverage on higher education training to spur economic growth in various sectors of the kingdom. The library of Jubal University College has expanded over time. Lately, it has large volumes of monographs and periodicals than before with around 67 weekly subscriptions of the current periodicals.


Purpose of the Research

The purpose of the study is to establish the reasons behind students keeping the borrowed overdue library books. The research also aims to examine the perception of the students on the eight measures that have been put in place by the management against overdue books. Lastly, research assesses the measures that the student expects the library to take to reduce the number of overdue books.

This topic is vital since it helps the department of management information science to develop a library system that ensures there is effective communication linking the borrowers of the library material and the staff. The system should incorporate features that send arts to the borrowers before it is time to return the materials.

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This problem under study is vital because it helps the researcher to establish why most of the borrowers had library books on their possession despite them being overdue. In addition, it sought suggestions from borrowers and staff on how to reduce overdue book in the library.


Importance of the Study

The important part of the study was coming up with a solution to curb overdue books. The solution will be well identified from the various suggestions that will be provided by the participants of the survey. The results from this study will be of great help to the management of the library in mitigating the failure of the students to return books. The results will be of help to the students to be aware of the time and penalties associated with overdue books (Darocki et al, 2015). It will also help the MIS department to develop a system that will manage books in the library at the same time reminding the borrowers on overdue books and the associated penalties. Therefore, the research will facilitate effective and efficient flow of the books in the library.

Data Collection and Survey Instrument

The population of interest in this study were the individuals who borrow books from the library. The study took a sample of 54 borrowers who comprised of both students and staff members. The samples were collected using stratified random sampling. This is a technique where the population under study is divided into small groups called strata with shared characteristics (Darocki et al, 2015). At each stratum, the sample is randomly selected using a give statistical criterion. Samples are taken from each stratum according to the size of the population. In this context, the population is divided into two groups comprisingof either male or female.

Data is collected using a structured questionnaire. The questionnaire is distributed among the participants randomly for them to fill. The respondents are then required to tick the appropriate box. The response variable is the overdue books. This is a nominal variable and it is measured according to the six major courses that are provided in Jubail University College. The majors include English, business, management information system (MIS), internal design (ID), human resources (HR), accounting and Computer science (Darocki et al, 2015).

Variable Level
English 1
Management information system (MIS), 2
Internal design (ID) 3
Human resources (HR) 4
Accounting 5
Computer science (CS) 6


Limitation of the Study

The study is only limited to the student and the staff of Jubail university, thus it cannot be generalized to other institutions.

Analysis of Results

The study encountered two challenges based on the collected data. Firstly, the data had missing values where the respondents failed to fill information or skipped some questions on the questionnaire. This problem was solved by imputing values. Secondly, the data had some extreme values (Hinton, 2014). The problem was dealt with by removing them, hence making the data suitable for analysis.

Thirdly, the study was characterized by measurement bias, which occurs when there is a systematic error in the measurements. This errors can be either underestimating or overestimating the actual measurement. This error was corrected by checking the accuracy of the measurement and formulas that were used. The study also experienced non-response bias. This bias occurred when the respondents were unwilling and unable to participate in the survey. The bias was dealt with by ensuring that the questions are short, clear and straightforward. The study did not have any problem with unexpected resultsnor did issues arise in the course of the research (Darocki et al, 2015).

The study employed descriptive statistics to analyze the data. This a technique that is used to describe the basic features of data by providing its summaries and measurements. Descriptive statistics comprises of measure of dispersion, centrality, and graphical presentations (Hinton, 2014). The measure of centrality used in this study includes the mean, median and mode while those of dispersion are variance and the range. The graphs used include bar graphs and histograms, which show the distribution of the variables.


Descriptive Statistics

  Frequency Valid Percent Cumulative Percent
Valid male 23 43.4 43.4
female 30 56.6 100.0
Total 53 100.0  
Total 60    

The table shows that 43.4 percent were male and 56.6 percent were female. There were more female compared to the male.



Status of Library
  Frequency Valid Percent Cumulative Percent
Valid Current 24 45.3 45.3
Expired 29 54.7 100.0
Total 53 100.0  
Total 60    

The table above table, 45.3 percent of the borrowers have current library ticket and 54.7 percent have expired library tickets  The average age of the responds was 36.74 years where the smallest age was 18 years and the highest 72 years.





Books Overdue

From the above bar graph, 20.8 percent of overdue books were from the course of computer science followed by English and human resource book at 17.0 percent. The least overdue books were from accounting, internal design, and management information science at 15.1 percent.

Reasons for Overdue Books

From the above, most (14 percent) of the student delayed returning the books because the date falls on Thursday. Twenty to the percent of the respondent admitted that they did not finish with the book and agreed to hold the book. Eight percent forgot returning the book and the least percentage of the respondent alluded to the fact that the books were time-consuming.

Perception of the respondents


From the above chart, the respondents perceived that the best way to discourage overdue books is by taking a court action, followed by refusing further loan. Additionally, they suggested withholding the certificate of the borrowers, providing renewal, sending overdue notices to the defaulters, charging fines, publication of the defaulter name, and reporting to the heads of department or deans. The most unhelpful way was to provide renewals (Hinton, 2014).

Summary, Conclusion, and Recommendation

The most overdue books were from the course of computer science. Moreover, the library has to purchase more copies of the books to satisfy the demand. The main reason for the overdue book was because the date to return the book fell on Thursday, which is a weekend when people relax and the library is closed. On the same note, it emerged that more students were unable to finish with the books, thus deciding to hold them. Majority of the students agreed that taking court action was the most suitable way to curb overdue books.

Therefore, this study has demonstrated that incidences of book overdue ware more predominant among students from computer science courses. Further, the core reason for overdue books was because the return date fell on Thursdaywhen the library was closed and the decision of students to hold the books. The measures to be taken to mitigate book overdue is taking a court action. The study recommends that a note should be put on the books and the library desk to remind the students on the date for returning the books. Moreover, the library management should create awareness to sensitize students on the importance of returning books to the library in time.




Darocki, M., Sell, R., Blanchard, D., Kaushal, K., Dittrich, T., &Wardi, G. (2015). 112 A Descriptive Analysis of Right Ventricular Echocardiogram Parameters in Patients Successfully Resuscitated from Cardiac Arrest. Annals of Emergency Medicine, 66(4), S40.

Hinton, P. R. (2014). Statistics explained. Routledge.





Appendix 1: Questionnaire



  1. What is your age? ………………..
  2. What is your year of study? ……………….
  3. What is your gender? ……………..
  4. What is your library ticket?

[ ] Current

[ ] Expired

  1. Which of the following books do you books do you borrow from the library?

[ ] English

[ ] Management information system (MIS),

[ ] Internal design (ID)

[ ] Human resources (HR)

[ ] Accounting

[ ] Computer science (CS)


  1. Why are you still keeping the book you borrowed?

[ ] Forgetfulness

[ ] Not finishing with the book

[ ] Not finished with the book

[ ] Time consuming

[ ] Date due fall on Thursday

[ ] Agree to hold on the book


  1. How do you feel about the following measures against overdue books
S/N Measure Helpful and welcome Not helpful and detested
1 Providing for renewals    
2 Sending overdue notices to defaulters    
3 Charging overdue fines    
4 Taking court action    
5 Publishing defaulters names    
6 Reporting to heads of departments    
7 Refusing further loans    
8 Withholding certificates    

Appendix 2: Data Collected

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