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OUTLINE FOR TYPICALITY EFFECTS INTRO

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  1. Memory: The 3 stages
  2. Acquisition-Storage-Retrieval
  3. Storage is where “learning” really begins
  4. Most memory errors happen in the retrieval stage, but are due to poor storage (cite any cognition textbook)
  5. Since storage is the root of the problem… what do we know?
  6. We automatically store semantically
  7. Define semantic
  8. Research showing that this is true
  9. Research explaining WHY this happens
  10. Semantic networks and hierarchies
  11. Prototypes
    1. Degrees of fit
    2. Frequency (high vs low)
    3. Research on this?
  12. Typicality Effect
  13. The sentence verification task (an S is a P)
  14. Fast yes vs slow yes
  15. Due to “feature comparison”
  16. Basic memory research paradigm
  17. Familiarization Phase
  18. Explain the task, give a practice example
  19. Learning Phase
  20. They are given a time limit to learn a list of words
  21. Retention Interval
  22. They are given a Rehearsal Prevention Task
  23. Testing Phase
  24. They are asked to remember the words
    1. Recognition: multiple choice or list comparison
    2. Recall: free or cued

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  1. One important finding is about Organization: (this is how we structure and store info in memory). In free recall tests, we tend to recall the words in semantic categories. This is due to the natural, automatic tendency towards chunking
  2. Chunking (Miller)
  3. We do this semantically and automatically
  4. Blocking
  5. Other types: ABC order; personal significance
  6. Most effective & used: semantic categories
  7. Interaction
    1. Memory depends on time spent learning the words
      1. Typical takes less time; can look just at categories instead of all members
      2. Natural vs. experimenter-generated categories: takes time to make categories if not already there
      3. So putting TYP with BLOCKED….
      4. Our purpose
    2. Hypotheses
      1. H1: Recall for prototypical items > non prototypical items
      2. H2: Recall for blocked lists > random lists
      3. H3: There will be a Typicality X Organization interaction

 

(1956). Miller, G.A. The magical number Seven, plus or minus two: some limits on Our capacity for processing information. Psychological Review, 63, 81-97.

 

(1969): D’Acosxino, P. R. The blocked-random effect in Recall and Recognition. Journal Of Verbal Learning And Verbal Behavior, Vol8, pg815-?.

 

(1968). Kintsch, W. Recognition And Free Recall Of Organized Lists. Journal of Experimental Psychology, vol78, pg481-?

 

(1993). Otani, H., Whiteman A. Word Frequency Effect: A Test of a Processing-based Explanation. Psychological Record, vol43, pp317-?.

 

(1991). MacLaury, R. E. Prototypes revisited. Annual review of Anthropology, vol20, pp55-?.

 

(2002). Nosofsky, R. M., Zaki, S. R. exemplar and prototype models revisited: response strategies, selective attention, and stimulus generalization. journal of experimental psychology: Learning, Memory, and Cognition, vol28, pg924-?.

 

(1962). Tulving, E. Subjective organization in free recall of “Unrelated” words. Psychological review, v69, p344-?.

 

(2011). Richler, J.J., Gauthier, I. Palmeri, T.J. automaticity of basic-level categorization accounts for labeling effects in visual recognition memory. Journal of Experimental Psychology: learning, memory, cognition, v37issue(6), p1579-?.

 

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