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Summer 2019


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Name:  Cindy Charles


Multiple choice section:


  1. A researcher is interested in studying the eating behavior of a rats and selects a group of 25 rats to be tested in a research study. The group of 25 rates is an example of a                                                                                                             a. sample         .                                                                                               b. statistic                                                                                                        c. population                                                                                                                        d. parameter
  2. A researcher uses an anonymous survey to investigate the study habits of the American college students. The entire group of American college students is an example of a                                                                                                                         a. sample         .                                                                                               b. statistic                                                                                                        c. population                                                                                                               d. parameter
  3. A characteristic, usually a numerical value, that describes a sample is called a                      a. sample            .                                                                                               b. statistic                                                                                                        c. population                                                                                                          d. parameter
  4. Determining the class standing for the graduating seniors at a high school would involve measurement on a(n) ____________ scale of measurement.                                    a. nominal        .                                                                                               b. ordinal                                                                                                         c. interval                                                                                                                    d. ratio
  5. A researcher conducts a study to determine whether moderate doses of St. John’s Wort have any effect on memory in college students. For this study, with is the independent variable?
  1. the amount of St. John’s Wort given to each participant.
  2. the memory score for each participant
  3. the group of college students
  4. cannot answer without more information.
  1.  When we are interested in simply looking at the association or relationship between two contiguous variables as they exist naturally , the following research method is likely to be helpful:                                                                                           a. correlational                                                                                                             b. experimental                                                                                                            c. quasi-experimental                                                                                                  d. non-parametric
  2. In an experiment looking at the effect of eating varied levels of multiple portions of ice cream, daily, on blood serum cholesterol levels (HDL)                                           a. eating ice cream is the independent variable (IV) and HDL is the    dependent variable (DV).                                                                                                        b. ice cream, the DV and HDL, the IV                                                                      c. neither, this is a correlational study                                                                         d. ice cream and HDL  are both independent variables
  3. “Girl, boy, girl, girl, boy, boy, boy, girl. So, there’s 4 girls and 4 boys.” Our enumerator is employing which of the following scales                                                 a. ratio                                                                                                                         b. sex differential                                                                                                        c. interval                                                                                                                    d. nominal
  4. “I came in first place in the “Best Statistics Professor” category. That clearly shows I am much better at this than most other professors on campus.”                                  a. This is a reasonable conclusion, since first place in Statistics must be a higher rating than, say, third place in Multicultural Education.                                                b. The speaker mistakenly attributes arithmetic characteristics to ordinal data.                                                                                                                                        c. The statement has absolutely no meaning, since we do not know the number of other professors on campus or teaching statistics. It represents an example of the absolute or ratio scale.                                                                                    d. The interval scale applies here, because voters used a relative standard.
  5. Celsius, Fahrenheit, & IQ scales are                                                                                       a. ratio scales                                                                                                               b. interval scales                                                                                                          c. not similar scales of measurement                                                                           d. ordinal scales
  6. Kelvin, height, weight and speed are                                                                                     a. ratio scales                                                                                                               b. interval scales                                                                                                          c. not similar scales of measurement                                                                           d. ordinal scales
  7. You are instructed to subtract four points from each score and find the sum of the resulting values. How would this set of instructions be expressed in summation notation
  1. ∑ X-4
  2. ∑ (X-4)
  3. 4- ∑ X
  4. ∑ (4-X)


  1. A distribution of reading scores produced by a diagnostic test spreads the raw scores of lowest performing students across a broad range of scores for further differentiation, while grouping the highest performing students’ raw scores along a higher, but much narrower range of scores. The resulting distribution is best characterized as                                                                                                             a. positively skewed                                                                                                    b. platykurtic                                                                                                                   c. negatively skewed                                                                                                            d. percentile-like
  2. Of the mean, median or mode, which, in your judgment, is best used to characterize central tendency of the following distribution of scores 86, 59, 3005, 99, 32, 18, 32, 18, 18.
    1. mean
    2. median
    3. mode
    4. none can be used to characterize central tendency

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  1. The relationship between population variance and standard deviation is                              a. factorial                                                                                                                        b. syntonic                                                                                                                   c. collaborative                                                                                                            d.multiplicative


  1. A z-score of zero                                                                                                                     a. indicates an error in calculations, failure to square the deviations                                 b. is only theoretically possible                                                                                   c. is the mean                                                                                                              d. is obtained by correlation of scores


  1. Z-scores are                                                                                                                 a. correlational variables                                                                                              b. used with population score                                                                                     c. have a standard deviation of 2.                                                                               d. are an example of non-parametric data
  2. What Z-score value separates the top 10% of a normal distribution from the bottom 90%? Z =
  1. 1.28
  2. 0.25
  3. -1.28
  4. -.25


  1. A jar contains 10 red marbles and 30 blue marbles. A random sample of n = 3 is selected from the jar. If the first two marbles are both blue, what is the probability that the third marble will be red?
  1. 10/3
  2. 10/38
  3. 10/40
  4. 8/38


  1. Which of the following are requirements of a random sample?
    1. Every individual has an equal chance of being selected.
    2. The probabilities cannot change during a series of selections
    3. There must be sampling with replacement
    4. All of the above


  1. The corresponding standard score value of a z-score of -3 for a  population of scores with a mean of a 100 and a standard deviation of 15 would be                                    a. 55                                                                                                                            b. 82                                                                                                                            c. 145                                                                                                                          d. 130
  2. What is  the value of SS for the following set of scores? Scores 0, 1, 4, 5
  1. 17
  2. 18
  3. 42
  4. 10


  1. Which set of scores has the smallest standard deviation?
  1. 11, 17, 31, 53

b.5, 11, 42, 22

  1. 145, 143, 147, 145
  2. 27, 105, 10, 80


  1. If you are interested in cutting back on caloric intake and losing weight, you would be striving for
    1. A positive correlation between caloric intake and weight
    2. An inverse correlation between caloric intake and weight
    3. A negative correlation between caloric intake and weight
    4. I don’t know so I’ll just exercise like crazy.
  2. Which of the following is a perfect correlation/
  1. .00
  2. -1.00
  3. .9999


  1. If you are interested in the association between percentile rank in high school and percentile rank in college, you should use


    1. Continuous data
    2. Pearson correlation
    3. Spearman correlation
    4. Orthogonal factor analysis
  1. When a correlation (say between hours of study and grades for the top 10% of students in school) does not have a full set of values (a restricted range), we


    1. Should have confidence in the prediction as long as there is no violation of a priori hypothesis
    2. Should consider that the restricted range might overstate the relationship
    3. Should consider that the restricted range might understate the relationship
    4. Do not have consider the restricted range issue because of the continuous values of GPA.
  1. The best fitting straight line for a data set of X-values plotted against y-values is called


    1. a correlation matrix
    2. polynomial expansion
    3. varimax rotation
    4. a regression equation





Short answer section


  1. You toss a penny in the air 15 times and get 15 heads in a row. What is the likelihood that heads comes up on the sixteen toss, assuming a non-biased coin? Cite and explain a relevant principle in justifying your answer.




  1. When the mega-million jackpot reaches $100 million dollars, the lines at my local deli seem to grow exponentially. Why are you more likely to be shot and wounded during a robbery attempt at the deli, then you are to win the jackpot? What advice would you give to someone who spends $75 per week on lottery tickets?




Problem section

  1. A special needs teacher records the number of trials it takes a sample of her students to learn a new task. The scores (number of trials) are as follows: 5, 9, 10, 11, 15, 5, 5,9,10,11,15,5.. Compute the sample mean, sum of squares, variance and standard deviation as an estimate of her total class of students. Show your work.




Test and Measurements

Summer 2019

First Examination


Name:____Cindy Charles____________________________________


Part 1. Multiple choice (70% of grade)

  1. 1. Formal assessment most typically refers to


  1. a. the use of a standardized test to collect data.
  2. b. individualized testing by a certified psychologist.
  3. c. any data collection occurring after a teacher has referred a student.
  4. d. one kind of observation.


  1. The primary purpose of commercially prepared norm-referenced assessment devices is to


  1. a. determine a child’s mental age.
  2. b. provide a distribution of scores.
  3. c. assess student eligibility for special-education services.
  4. d. make observations systematic.


  1. After construction of an IEP the team is responsible for ( All of the above).


  1. monitoring progress towards the IEP goals
  2. determining continual eligibility for special education services.
  3. Discontinuing services that are no longer needed
  4. All of the above.


  1. Of the following, the best example of a nominal scale is (b. surnames)
  2. a. height.
  3. b.
  4. c. ranks in military service.
  5. d.


  1. Of the following, the best example of an ordinal scale is (c. ranks in military service.)
  2. a.
  3. surnames.
  4. c. ranks in military service.
  5. d.



  1. Of the following, the best example of a ratio scale is (d. temperature.)
  2. a.
  3. b.
  4. c. ranks in military service.
  5. d.


  1. Of the following, the best example of an interval scale is (a. height)


  1. a. height.
  2. b.
  3. c. ranks in military service.
  4. d.


  1. Of the following, the one that is not a measure of central tendency is (range).
  2. a. range.
  3. b.
  4. c.
  5. d.



  1. The standard deviation, variance, and range are all measures of ( c. dispersion).
  2. a. central tendency.
  3. b. partition values.
  4. c. dispersion.
  5. d.


  1. The mean age in months for preschool children was reported as 25.5. The standard deviation for Group 1 was 3.4 and for Group 2, 4.9. From this, we may conclude that
  2. a. Group 1 is more variable than Group 2.
  3. b. the mode for Group 1 is higher than that for Group 2.
  4. c. Group 2 is more variable than Group 1.
  5. d. the median age for Group 2 is higher than that for Group 1.


  1. The legal requirement that led to RTI or a multi-tiered system of support was an outcome of (b. the 2004 revision of IDEA)


  1. ADA
  2. the 2004 revision of IDEA
  3. Section 504 of the Rehabilitation Act of 1973
  4. EHA 1975


  1. The standard deviation of scores for a sample of children is 16, and the arithmetic mean is 100. The distribution of scores is a normal distribution. This means that approximately 34% of the cases will have scores between
  2. a. 92 and 108.
  3. b. 84 and 116.
  4. c. 84 and 100.
  5. d. 100 and 132.



  1. Of the following correlation coefficients, the one with the poorest predictive value is
  2. a. .90.
  3. b. .12.
  4. c. –.52.
  5. d. −1.00.


  1. When you are seeking the association of continuous variables, such as GPA and amount of time studying, the following correlation statistic is appropriate


  1. Chi square
  2. Pearson
  3. Spearman
  4. Cattell


  1. Correlational data should never be used to reach conclusions about
  2. a.
  3. b. relationships among variables.
  4. c. the magnitude of relationships.
  5. d. the direction of relationships


  1. Standardizing scores offers all of the advantages of converting raw scores to percentiles except for
  2. a. ability to be added.
  3. b. usefulness to test developers.
  4. c. ease of interpretation.
  5. d. the equal-interval scale characteristic.


  1. Standard scores are considered to be
  2. a.
  3. b.
  4. c.
  5. d. equal interval.


  1. For norms to be representative, they should include
  2. a. individuals with relevant characteristics and experience.
  3. b. equal numbers of various types of individuals.
  4. d. all possible types of individuals who are in society.
  5. d. comparison data for 50 years ago, as well as for today.


  1. The reliability of a test refers to its relative
  2. a.
  3. b.
  4. c.
  5. d.
  6. An individual reported a reliability coefficient of 1.25 for an intelligence test. It was obtained by correlating the results of a given group on Form A with the group’s results on Form B. This coefficient indicates that
  7. a. the test is unusually reliable.
  8. b. the test is unusually valid.
  9. c. there are no errors of measurement.
  10. d. a mistake was made in computing the coefficient.


  1. AYP refers to


  1. Annual yearly progress
  2. a provision of NCLB
  3. may lead to supplemental educational services for students in poorly performing schools
  4. all of the above


  1. The “beneficence principle” refers to


  1. a. respect for dignity of persons.
  2. b. principled agreement and consensus in decision making
  3. c. internal consistency
  4. responsible caring likely to maximize benefit to students or, at least, do no harm.


  1. The higher the reliability coefficient, the lower the
  2. a. coefficient of regression.
  3. b. standard error of measurement.
  4. c.
  5. d. standard deviation.


  1. Of the following which is the most likely to provide the most information about a student’s performance
  2. a. Sum of correct responses
  3. b. raw score.
  4. c.
  5. fluency


  1. Of the following scores which is likely to be the least problematic for interpretation


  1. grade equivalent scores
  2. b. age equivalent scores
  3. percentile ranks
  4. standard scores


  1. A percentile ranking produces a distribution in the following shape
  2. a. normal distribution.
  3. b. ogive
  4. c. curvilinear
  5. d. rectangular


  1. The primary purpose of the laws associated with children with disabilities is to
  2. provide funding for special programs
  3. ensure that students with disabilities have equal access to educational benefit
  4. provide testing modifications
  5. ensure compliance by states with federal regulations


  1. A mastery test is likely to produce a distribution that is (negatively skewed)
  2. positively biased
  3. negatively skewed
  4. leptokurtic
  5. platykurtic


  1. A student tested in April receives a 3.4 grade equivalent score in 3rd grade and a 4.4 grade equivalent score in fourth grade on a norm-referenced test. What is your best estimate about the progress the student made?
  2. they improved a full grade level.
  3. they remained about the same in comparison to the group.
  4. they are doing much better in fourth grade
  5. they have actually declined relative to the average student, based on arithmetic



  1. The primary difference between an objective and subjective test lies in (c. the nature of the content)
  2. the method of scoring
  3. the projective technique
  4. the nature of the content
  5. there’s little difference


  1. A typing test, e.g., how many words you can type correctly in a minute is considered C.(a power test)


  1. a criterion referenced test
  2. a normative test
  3. a power test
  4. a subjective test


  1. The act that ensure access to educational records and ensures the right to privacy to all parents of children under 18 years of age, transferrable to the “adult” student at 18, but, incidentally, continues access for parents of “dependent” children over 18, goes by the following acronym (FERPA)


  1. FERPA
  2. ADA of 1990
  3. BOCES
  4. Public law 94-142


  1. Which of the following is not a type of reliability? (c. alternate form)


  1. internal consistency
  2. construct reliability
  3. alternate form
  4. interobserver agreement


  1. Noting little difference in the ultimate performance of the top 50 students on a predictor measure of academic competence (i.e., comparing the first 25 students admitted to medical school with the next 25 on measures of performance of first year medical students from a pool of 500 initial applicants) is likely the product of the following statistical feature:
  2. Cohen’s d
  3. Standard error of measurement (SEM)
  4. restriction of range
  5. difference scores




Part II: Essay Questions (30%): Please type your answers and modify the space accordingly


  1. A 3rd grade teacher colleague says, “Wow, we just got the results of the California Tests of Achievement (norm-based) back, and I learned that a student in my class has a 9th grade reading level. I guess I will have to find some high school texts to supplement the curriculum materials available in my class.” What is your advice to this teaching colleague, based on your understanding of test scores, i.e., percentiles, standard scores, grade equivalent scores, etc.? (Hint: Is 9th grade really 9th grade?) Provide a rationale for your advice, including an explicit understanding of the relative value of grade equivalent scores.



  1. You are asked as a testing consultant to provide information about a fair and statistically sound grading system. Please provide you recommendation along with a rationale for your choice. (Lyman’s discussion of grades in Chapter 8 along with the information in discussion blog might help to inform your rationale.)


According to Lyman (pg.96)




  1. English Language Learners (ELL’s) present specific challenges for assessment and interpretation of test results. Demonstrate an understanding of the issues associated with assessment of children with limited English proficiency.



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