This is the topic-
Title: Remote Surgery
Thesis: (also known as telesurgery) is the ability for a doctor to perform surgery on a patient even though they are not physically in the same location. It is a form of telepresence.
I also have a few references you can use I research I just need the final paper done
Nichols, G. (2016, January 16). Remote Robotic Surgery is both Practical and Safe. Retrieved fromhttp://www.zdnet.com/article/remote-robotic-surgery-is-both-practical-and-safe/
KAKSI, M., BASARAN, R., BOLUKBASI, F. H., BALKUV, E., & BALAK, N. (2015). Remote Cerebral and Cerebellar Hemorrhage after Spinal Surgery: A Case Report and Literature Review. Journal Of Neurological Sciences, 32(1), 220-230.
Lanfranco, A. (2004, January 2). Robotic Surgery. Retrieved fromhttp://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC1356187/
Pinkerton, S. (2013, November 17). The Pros and Cons of Robotic Surgery. Retrieved fromhttp://www.wsj.com/articles/SB10001424052702304655104579163430371597334
This is what needs to be included in the paper
You might want to explore the connections that comprise that discipline:
Pure Sciences: How does this technology work? Try to avoid the “How Things Work” website as your resource for this portion of the paper. Instead cite real scientists and fundamental scientific laws (e.g. laws of gravitation, Boyle’s law, laws of thermodynamics, etc.) underpinning the technology. Cite technical manuals, using scientific explanations, but work to express the scientific concepts in lay terms. Use physics, chemistry, biosciences, mathematics, etc. Try to sound “nerdy” but clear. If you need to provide a glossary at the end of your paper, that’s okay.
History: Trace the major events along the path to where we are today with the technology. You have to include a timeline as part of your discussion or in the Appendix. You also have to discuss in detail the most recent developments while trying to give a macro perspective. What happened sequentially, chronologically, and what led to the innovations that we see today? Who were the major players? What issues presented themselves as obstacles, and what were opportunities that advanced the technology? What factors (economic, scientific, etc) drove the technology. Tell us the story of how “blank” came to be.
Political Causes/Effects: Look at government policy, government intervention, government involvement (support or lack of support, funding), both nationally and internationally. Consider Congress, the President, the Supreme Court (decisions), the rate of change, liberalism, conservatism, legislation, litigation, etc. What political factors are at work in the progression or regression of the technology (e.g. lobbyists, special interest groups, partisan views, vocal advocates or spokespersons)? For example: The Americans with Disabilities Act was designed to prevent discrimination and encourage accessibility to public facilities; it impacted architects, companies, organizations and persons with disabilities through the installation of ramps (wider doors, lower knobs/handles, larger restroom stalls), the use of assistive devices in schools and in the workplace, hiring practices and lawsuits against employers, etc.
Economic Issues: Consider production, consumption, costs, variables of supply-demand, corporations, private enterprise, impact on the nation’s economy (employment, displacement, outsourcing). Are certain industries impacted more than others? Look up financial projections—expectations for growth, startup companies, the stock exchange, etc.—anything related to business and the U.S. and global economy. Who are the chief players in the business environment, and what is their role? How much has been invested in research and development? How will the price fluctuate? What economic trends are to be observed? Who will make money from the technology? Who is funding the research and development? Who controls the purse strings, and why? Look at foundations and charitable organizations, the outcomes and the nature of consumers. Be sure to use charts and tables and quantitative data in this section. Tables, figures, and data and statistics must be current, valid and used appropriately.
Psychological Effects: How has this technology been received, accepted, rejected? Why? Is it feared or favored? What is the attitude toward change? How are the developers trying to “sell” the technology to the general public? Look at attitudes, feelings (emotions), behaviors, personality, and the ways humans change as a result of this technology. What is being thought and why? Is the human mind impacted? How? Are interactions between people changing as a result? Who is included or excluded and why? Use Maslow’s hierarchy of needs, Piaget or some other theorist. What psychological needs are met by the technology (e.g., cell phones once granted status and now promote a sense of belonging or connectedness) or created by the technology? Consumerism?
Sociological Effects: Look at groups and organizations that have arisen and prospered because of this technology. Are these groups supportive or antagonist, and why? (An example is genetically modified foods [GMOs] and the backlash against the Monsanto corporation. Another is cochlear implants which allow the deaf to hear, yet reduce the deaf population that calls itself a community.) How does the technology change society, or how does society change in response to the technology? What factors in society led to the development in the first place? What do class, gender roles, race, norms, etc. mean in this context? Who will benefit from the technology, and who might be harmed (this might also belong in ethics/morals section)? For example, prosthetics enable people to participate more fully and actively in society (some persons are competing in triatholons and marathons), and the “war” has brought about the need for advances in prosthetic technology as casualties with missing limbs return home to the United States. Look at the workplace, new companies and/or jobs created, jobs lost (or save this for economics?). Look at roles—subgroups, people’s interpersonal and intrapersonal relationships. Consider crime, healthcare, schools. Surveillance cameras, for example, have recently been installed inNew York City, and the result has been a decrease in the amount of crime, purse-snatching, pickpocketing, etc. Yet some fear the “big brother” effect of always being watched and tracked and concerns over “Who will guard the guards?”
Cultural Considerations: This is a really important section. Consider the elements that comprise the culture and subcultures. Compare the United States use of the technology with that of other nations around the world. What is about Americans that brings about innovation, or has America declined in terms of technical innovation, scientific research and development? Look at advertising for the technology, the use of celebrities or stars or heroes, the applications (e.g. sports and nanotechnology) and the values represented by the culture. What has priority and why? An example: IBM was spelled out in xenon atoms. Why were these letters chosen instead of something else?
What new words have been added to our vocabulary from this technology? “Horseless carriage” was used long before the term “automobile.” “Wireless” preceded Wi-Fi, and webcasting preceded podcasting. “Broadcast” was a term adapted from agriculture long before it was used for radio and television.
Artistic Links: How do musicians and artists react to the technology or use the technology or incorporate the technology in their artistic productions? For example, fiber optic lighting has been used on the stage and in parades (Disney) for costuming. The drama term “In the limelight,” for example, was derived from a lens/lighting system used in lighthouses. Look at literature—perhaps science fiction or fantasy stories—that predate the technology (Jules Verne, for example, wrote about submarines before they were actually invented and used—though Leonardo da Vinci had sketched the idea centuries before Verne). Are there any songs, short stories, poems, plays, TV shows, or films that directly make reference to the technology? Are there any “related” literary works that apply? Is the artifact in a museum or will it be? Why? How does the technology relate to concepts of beauty and novelty and human creativity? How can people express their humanity through this technology? An example: scientists experimenting with nano made a “nano guitar” that actually played a tune, though it was subthreshold human hearing.
Environmental Effects: Consider such things as dangers to humans, the depletion of resources, air and water pollution, discovery before inventions, impact on wildlife and humans (health and safety), long-term and short-term effects, waste disposal, aesthetic considerations (how the technology changes the landscape). Look also at the positive effects (savings of raw materials or fossil fuels, low environmental impact, enhancement to the environment). For example, some thought the Alaskan Pipeline would impact the caribou population and its ability to migrate; the scientists discovered that the population actually increased and was healthier because they had “shade” from the above-the-ground pipe, fewer biting flies, and less physically stressed females.
Other negative examples: the spotted owl and deforestation in Washington State; the snail darter and the dam, endangered species and loss of habitats, extinction, over-mining, overproduction, pollution of ground water, landfills, toxic wastes, stripping the soil of nutrients, over fishing, over hunting, over harvesting.
Moral and Ethical Considerations: Consider quality of life, human rights, codes of ethics, privacy, accountability, corporate responsibility government responsibility, individual responsibility (e.g., ways of dying and rights of dying). What ethical values are expressed implicitly or explicitly by this technology? Pride (being the first-to-get-to-the moon kind of thing)? Greed? Power? Fraud? Theft? Deception? Lies? Whose rights are violated? Whose rights are honored? Consumer rights? The rights of the general public? Freedom? Authority? Control? What are the major moral concerns associated with the creation and adoption of this technology? Remember the e-Waste example in the reading I gave you—the disposal of dangerous toxins in “poorer” countries, the not-in-my-backyard phenomenon. What do religious groups have to say (this group thing may fit better in the sociology section)? For example, contraceptives generally prevent pregnancy but for some this technology violates what they call “natural law” and their religious belief in God’s command to “be fruitful and multiply.” Look at corporate code of ethics, professional codes of ethics (IEEE, etc.) available through websites such as Illinois Institute of Technology’s and Case Western Reserve University’s (compilation) or ethicsonline.org. Look at the companies developing the technology and check out their “codes of ethics” to determine whether the technology they are developing is in keeping with their mission and values. Who is responsible if something goes wrong or if critical information is withheld from the public? Example: asbestos and cigarettes
Apply ethical theory on your own—utilitarianism, act utilitarianism, rule utilitarianism, Kant’s categorical imperative, ethic of care, deontology, teleology, ethical egoism, absolutism, Fletcher’s situation ethics, ethical relativism, etc. Consider an encyclopedia of ethics for terms and applicable concepts. Check out the reading in our textbook on morality and technology.
All written sections will be compiled into one, cohesive paper. All students should review the paper to ensure that the transitions are smooth, that the sections fit together, and that the references are compiled correctly.
The paper should conclude with recommendations for further research or possible solutions that could be evaluated. A complete list of references, in APA format, should follow along with any Appendices.
· Title Page (not included in page count)
· Table of Contents – indicating student sections (not included in page count)
· Abstract – 200-word summary of the entire paper; it is not a restatement of the introduction (not included in page count)
o Introduction that provides background information, establishes the context and significance of the issues and the technology (your thesis statement) and generally orients your reader to the entire project. It should outline the scope of the investigation, and comment on any challenges the team faced with respect to research sources.
o Report sections, organized using at least level-1 and level-2 headings.
o Proper documentation throughout the report using APA style. (Each student is responsible for documenting properly, and undocumented or poorly cited material will count as plagiarism—a failing grade for the paper.)
o Appropriate visuals/graphic aids in the document that are discussed in the body of the report and support the thesis (e.g., a table, graph, chart, illustration, photograph, diagram, map, etc.); mathematical or statistical data is appropriately used to support conclusions. All visuals/graphic aids also need to be properly documented.
o Conclusion that effectively synthesizes the sections of the report. It should summarize key issues. Included in this section should be Recommendations for Further Research, following up on any questions that were uncovered during your research or suggestions for groups/events to follow.
· References and appendix (not included in the page count but significant in showing you “found” relevant stuff that would not fit into the body of the text—brochures, charts, handouts, samples of materials or products, or team process reports, etc.).
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