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Deepfake videos have been commonly used on social networks and growing significantly. Do deep fake videos bring crisis? Although this new technology is under Sustainable Development and still in progression stage, in reality, that actual malice materially deceptive videos may cause massive damage within short period time, injure candidate’s reputation, harass and humiliate women, spread false content, it is a new threat to cybersecurity world, national security, and society.

Deepfake is an AI technology that can manipulate video with artificial intelligence and specificity designed machine learning models. There are many different ways to create one, creators need to fill data into models and make approaches to more realistic fake content. Making a high-quality fake video with audio is not easy, it requires tons of efficient resources and a powerful machine. However, anyone has the accessibility to download an open-source software and create a convincing video of a person doing something that never exists with just a few pictures provided.

Deepfake videos are extremely powerful that it can hack into brains through eyes and ears which makes harder to identify truth. Human is born with a sense of Acceptance and learning abilities, ever since we were babies, we learn and believe what we see. The brain gathers most information from visual and hearing, combine them then accept it. Every single pixel of the face in the video and movement will be captured and recreated. Most of the time, people will not spot problems visually, not even mentally. In reality, our brains always seek out information that supports our expectations and trying to convince us. In severe situations, our brains will ignore the truth and make a false judgment. That explains why people like fake videos especially videos with sexual content and tend to share it. That means the whole internet community are exposed to danger due to the spreading speed , certain laws protection and restrictions are necessary.

Fake sexual videos can be easily weaponized to humiliate women. According to the Washington Post, “Actress Scarlett Johansson has been superimposed into dozens of graphic sex scenes over the past year that has circulated across the Web”(Drew Harwell). Her face had been grafted onto a pornography actress and the video was falsely marked as” leaked”. There is no way to stop people making these videos, once the video was uploaded, it will spread out like a disease. The damage to the victim’s family and career is unpredictable.According to CNN news, “Deeptrace said 96% of the deepfakes spotted consisted of pornographic content, and all of that pornographic content featured women.”(Metz, 2019). Public policies can bring Deepfake technology under control.

Assembly Bill No.602 provides restriction of the unlawful sexually explicit materials. This bill creates a private right of action against a person who creates intentionally discloses sexually explicit material without the consent of the other. ”Existing law creates a private right of action against a person who intentionally distributes a photograph or recorded image of another that exposes the intimate body parts of that person or of a person engaged in a sexual act without the person’s consent if specified conditions are met.”(Berman,2019) The intentional of this bill is to protect individuals from unlawful sexual image abuse. The word ”Digitization” specified all contents of deepfake, including computer generalized body parts and body of another individual. However, this policy does not prevent all the risks.

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One Possible policy vacuum exists and it is not possible to solve. Faces are similar to depicted individual can be generated by computer. There is no permission needed because the generated person does not exist in real life but This depicted individual still can be abused. There is no specific way to identify the similarity between computer generated faces and real human faces. Similarity Identify process will make the publish of this law inefficient.  In my opinion, ban sexual deepfake videos will sovle the problem, advance the policy is necessary. We are likely to see a significant reduction in those types of videos and make sure women are protected under laws.

Fake news has always been an interesting topic due to it being a major contributor to propaganda and problematic issues that occurs on the web.The use of deep fake technology will significantly reduce society’s trust in visual media. (Samuel Greengard,pg17). Deepfake videos can be used to attack political candidates or celebrities, make them saying something hurts their personality and sway public opinion on the Presidential campaign. This will result in citizen’s Distrust on policy and make elections hard to prosecute.

Bill Assembly Bill No. 730 CHAPTER 493 was approved on October 03, 2019. This policy is intended to prevent fake News.“from distributing with actual malice materially deceptive visual media of the candidate with the intent to injure the candidate’s reputation or to deceive a voter into voting for or against the candidate.” (Borman, 2019)The bill states that marking videos as manipulated would be considered as legit. It will prevent any false video or audio against a candidate, protect their rights and punish those who against law.

policy vacuum also exists, define materially deceptive is not easy. Some of the videos can be edited and reorganized, individuals in the video can ended up saying something they do not want to say. Clearly, it can not be identified as materially deceptive video because the original audio and video was not modified, audiences misunderstand the content of clips. In “The Work of Art in The Age of Mechanical Reproduction”, Walter Benjamin discusses Mark’s critique of capitalistic. Artwork that spreads propaganda which is usually distributed all over a country or a photograph which shows some political event which is reproduced and shared all over the world. I feel like deepfake news is a type of art form definitely has political values.

The article Making Technology Democratic by Richard E. Sclove talks about the role that innovation and technology have had on politics and society. He talks about how technology can have broad impacts on culture and society. The point is to accept technologies after we carefully design and choose the right one. He listed a few design Criteria for Democratic technology, surely, it will not be easy to reach our goal. Facebook is making deep fake videos and try to help researchers better detect fake videos.”Facebook has come under criticism for not being quicker to take down deepfake videos on its social network.”(Oreskovic,2019) It is a challenging project. the development might take a long period.

Many people believe there is not substantial agreement on moral matters.
Gert claims that the common moral system does not provide a unique solution to every moral problem but it can help us clarify the controversial matters.In order to let people understand the system and accept it, the moral system cannot involve any beliefs that are not held by all rational persons.He explains a special case”illegally copying a software program”, two rational people would agree on this action will not result in harmful consequences. There are two sides, one will agree it will do huge harm to the company, and the other side is justified by friends’ benefit. This looks more like an unresolvable moral disagreement.

Moor says”Computers are special technology and they raise some special issues.” broadly about field of computer technology which include software , hardware and networks. because those fields have a large social impact. one of the problems he mentioned is the policy vacuum. It is hard to generate a policy with ethical theory. when we talking about math and nature, any theory or algorithm is not owned by anybody in this world. Those stuff already existed. people download and watch pirate version of software and movies, .what if they use those as educational purpose? what if students cannot afford ebook? How do we weight the benefits if those people download software for personal use? If we look at the very bottom of mathematical language, everything in the computer is just tons of 1’s and 0’s, where do we draw the line? Many social media sites include Facebook, youtube and have banned deepfake videos but permit some content. but I think it should be completely banned over the social network and wait till some company has actual software to detect fake videos.   The invention printing press has a major impact on the Democratic. The technology changed the printing industry and formed the democratization of information. Information became more accessible to more people and technologies were improved by user experiences as the customer population grows up..

According to the World Economic Forum,” The technology could enable researchers to generate true-to-life data to develop and test new ways of diagnosing or monitoring disease without risking breaches in real patient privacy.”(Geraint Rees,2019). We must dig deep to find a good way to use and apply artificial genes for a good purpose. He states that the development of AI leads to a new future in health care. With the use of AI, patients’ privacy will be protected properly and it could raise new possibilities to find a more efficient way to cure disease. In general, we should not lose sight of deep fake technology’s bright future. However, the use of viral deepfake videos in social networks harass women and spreading fake news, anyone could be a potential target or victim.

Things might be different in the future, calculators used to be a giant machine in the last decade and now it is a small software, it is our responsibility to predict potential risk and prevent danger cases.In the past, it is common that a camera does not lie. We can easily distort low-quality photos and videos. However, breakthroughs in machine-learning technology bring us massive trouble. For a person without specific knowledge, it is hard to identify the truth of the video even among experts. In general, we need to stop internet violence in the first place, ban sexual deepfake videos before it causes Irreparable consequences, allow other deepfake videos because it has a some political valu. This technology might have a negligible contribution to archaeology, healthcare, Crime investigation, and some other fields and can be improved by user experiences as the user population grows up. We need a standard internet online society environment, protect users from deepfake violations. Everyone has the right to protect themselves from the unconsented use of their face.



Annotated Bibliography

Samuel Greengard. 2019. Will deepfakes do deep damage? Commun. ACM 63, 1 (December 2019), 17–19. DOI: https://doi-org.offcampus.lib.washington.edu/10.114



Drew Hardwell  (2018, December 30). Fake-porn videos are being weaponized to harass and humiliate women: ‘Everybody is a potential target’ Retrieved January 23, 2020, from https://www.washingtonpost.com/technology/2018/12/30/fake-porn-videos-are-being-weaponized-harass-humiliate-women-everybody-is-potential-target/

Bill Text. (2019). Retrieved October 27, 2019, from https://leginfo.legislature.ca.gov/faces/billTextClient.xhtml?bill_id=201920200AB602.

Bill Text. (2019). Retrieved October 27, 2019, from https://leginfo.legislature.ca.gov/faces/billTextClient.xhtml?bill_id=201920200AB730.

Metz, R. (2019, October 7). The number of deepfake videos online is spiking. Most are porn. Retrieved November 9, 2019, from https://www.cnn.com/2019/10/07/tech/deepfake-videos-increase/index.html.

Oreskovic, A. (2019, September 5). Facebook is making deepfake videos using paid actors so that it can help researchers better detect fake footage. Retrieved from https://www.businessinsider.com/facebook-creating-deepfake-videos-with-paid-actors-deepfake-challenge-2019-9?r=US&IR=T?utm_source&utm_medium=referral.

Porup, J. M. (2019, April 10). Deepfake videos: How and why they work – and what is at risk. Retrieved from https://www.csoonline.com/article/3293002/deepfake-videos-how-and-why-they-work.html.

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