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Physiology | Online Assignment Help

Question 1

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The minimum stimulus needed to cause muscle contraction is called

the threshold.
the latent period.
twitch.
recruitment.
innervation.

 

Question 2

Release of acetylcholine at a neuromuscular junction

 

decreases the release of Ca2+ from the sarcoplasmic reticulum.
increases permeability of the sarcolemma to Na+.

 

decreases the positive charge on the sarcolemma.
lowers the threshold of the muscle fiber.

 

overrides the inhibitory effect of acetylcholinesterase.

 

Question 3

One somatic motor neuron is stimulated by how many muscle fibers?

 

0
1

 

2
3

 

4

 

Question 4

To stimulate muscle contraction, acetylcholine is released from the ___________ into the synaptic cleft.

 

synaptic knob
junctional folds

 

sarcoplasmic reticulum
sarcolemma

 

terminal cisterna

 

Question 5

Opening of sodium gates typically leads to

depolarization of the plasma membrane.
drifting of plasma membrane voltage toward a more negative value.

 

plasma membrane voltage returning to the resting membrane potential.

 

Question 6

The process of bringing more motor units into use during a muscle contraction is called

 

wave summation.
recruitment.

 

treppe.
incomplete tetanus.

 

complete tetanus.

 

Question 7

A reason that muscle twitches become progressively stronger in treppe is

 

Ca2+ accumulates in the sarcoplasm faster than the sarcoplasmic reticulum can reabsorb it.
ATP is regenerated faster than it is consumed.

 

myosin heads show faster and faster power strokes.
more and more acetytlcholine is released with each stimulus.

 

as the muscle warms up, aerobic respiration is accelerated.

 

Question 8

If one nerve stimulus arrives at a muscle fiber so soon that the fiber has only partially relaxed from the previous twitch, the most likely result will be

 

fatigue.
treppe.

 

incomplete tetanus.
complete tetanus.

 

flaccid paralysis.

 

Question 9

Aerobic respiration produces approximately _____ more ATPs per glucose molecule than glycolysis does.

 

12
24

 

36
48

 

100

 

Question 10

The term for shortening of a muscle while maintaining constant tension is

treppe.
tetanus.

 

isokinetic contraction.
isometric contraction.

 

isotonic contraction.

 

Question 11

An isometric contraction does not change muscle length.

 

True
False

 

Question 12

Which of the following is true concerning isotonic eccentric contraction?

The muscle tenses and shortens.
The muscle tenses but length remains unchanged.

 

The muscle lengthens and tension declines.

 

Question 13

Which muscle(s) can contract without the need for nervous stimulation?

skeletal muscle
smooth muscle

 

cardiac muscle
smooth and cardiac muscle

 

skeletal, smooth and cardiac muscle

 

Question 14

Which of the following is very important for muscle to continue contraction during anaerobic respiration?

 

cholinesterase inhibitors
protease

 

myokinase
acetylcholinesterase

 

acid phosphatase

 

Question 15

Athletes who train at high altitudes increase their red blood cell count and thus increase their oxygen supply during exercise. Increased oxygen supply results in

 

increased glycolysis.
increased use of myokinase.

 

longer aerobic respiration.
longer anaerobic fermentation.

 

reduced ATP consumption.

 

 

Question 16

Use the image to name descibe what is happing in the electromyograpy /var/folders/9s/5k_n9ntx3sg2tkk2k98jfw200000gn/T/com.microsoft.Word/WebArchiveCopyPasteTempFiles/preview

Rapid shortening and relaxation a muscle fiber produces a quick jerk called

[ Choose ]             Treppe             Twitch             Incomplete Tetanus             Complete Tetanus             Fatigue

Gradual, step-like increase of tensions separated by 1 sec

[ Choose ]             Treppe             Twitch             Incomplete Tetanus             Complete Tetanus             Fatigue

Twitches that fuse with each other with no relaxation period

[ Choose ]             Treppe             Twitch             Incomplete Tetanus             Complete Tetanus             Fatigue

Occurs when the metabolic components needed for muscle contraction are exhausted

[ Choose ]             Treppe             Twitch             Incomplete Tetanus             Complete Tetanus             Fatigue

 

Question 17

Creatine kinase

 

donates one of its phosphate groups to ADP.
phosphorylates and activates certain enzymes in the sarcoplasm.

 

acts as a second messenger in muscle fibers.
catalyzes the transfer of phosphate from CP to ADP.

 

functions as a substitute for ATP during anaerobic fermentation.

 

Question 18

Which of the following best describes the resting membrane potential (RMP)?

The intracellular environment is negatively charged.
The intracellular environment has more positively charged sodium.

 

The extracellular environment is negatively charged.
It has a voltage of about +75 mV.

 

It depends on the muscle fiber absorbing potassium ions from the ECF.

 

Question 19

Oligodendrocytes serve the same purpose in the CNS that satellite cells do in the PNS.

 

True
False

 

Question 20

Most of the myelin sheath is composed of

 

lipids.
carbohydrates.

 

glycoproteins.
proteins.

 

polysaccharides.

 

Question 21

___ form myelin in the spinal cord.

 

Schwann cells
Astrocytes

 

Satellite cells
Oligodendrocytes

 

Microglia

 

Question 22

/var/folders/9s/5k_n9ntx3sg2tkk2k98jfw200000gn/T/com.microsoft.Word/WebArchiveCopyPasteTempFiles/preview    This image shows a representative neuron. What does “5” represent?

 

synaptic knobs
Schwann cells

 

trigger zone
node of Ranvier

 

axon collateral

 

Question 23

/var/folders/9s/5k_n9ntx3sg2tkk2k98jfw200000gn/T/com.microsoft.Word/WebArchiveCopyPasteTempFiles/preview    This image shows a representative neuron. What does “1” represent?

 

synaptic knobs
axons

 

Dendrites
interneurons

Please Match the cell type with the function. You may

Neuroglial cell that is related to immune tissue and phagocytizes dead nervous tissue

[ Choose ]             Schwann cells             Oligodendrocytes             Fibrous Astrocytes             Protoplasmic Astrocytes             Ependymal cells             Microglia

Forms the myelin sheath around most PNS axons

[ Choose ]             Schwann cells             Oligodendrocytes             Fibrous Astrocytes             Protoplasmic Astrocytes             Ependymal cells             Microglia

Line cavities of brain and spinal cord and secretes CSF

[ Choose ]             Schwann cells             Oligodendrocytes             Fibrous Astrocytes             Protoplasmic Astrocytes             Ependymal cells             Microglia

Star-like cells that form the blood brain-barrier

[ Choose ]             Schwann cells             Oligodendrocytes             Fibrous Astrocytes             Protoplasmic Astrocytes             Ependymal cells             Microglia

Forms the myelin sheath around most CNS axons

[ Choose ]             Schwann cells             Oligodendrocytes             Fibrous Astrocytes             Protoplasmic Astrocytes             Ependymal cells             Microglia

Star-like cell that forms a supportive framework in CNS and can form form scar tissue after injury

[ Choose ]             Schwann cells             Oligodendrocytes             Fibrous Astrocytes             Protoplasmic Astrocytes             Ependymal cells             Microglia

Spaces between these cells on an axon are called nodes of Ranvir

[ Choose ]             Schwann cells             Oligodendrocytes             Fibrous Astrocytes             Protoplasmic Astrocytes             Ependymal cells             Microglia

Aid in regeneration of damaged nerve fibers in the PNS

[ Choose ]             Schwann cells             Oligodendrocytes             Fibrous Astrocytes             Protoplasmic Astrocytes             Ependymal cells             Microglia

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