Oceanography | Online Assignment Help
Chapter #7 Study Guide
1. Regarding the salts in the ocean:
a) Where do the salts from the ocean come from and where do they go?
b) What are excess volatiles?
c) What is meant by our oceans being in chemical equilibrium?
d) What do salts do to the heat capacity, freezing point and evaporation rates of water?
e) What are the two most abundant salts in the ocean?
f) What is meant by residence and mixing time?
g) Why does water dissolve salts and not oil?
h) What is an ion?
i) What is a molecule?
j) What kind of bond holds salts together?
2. Regarding gases in the ocean:
a) How does oxygen and carbon dioxide change as you go deeper? Describe why this happens.
b) What are the sources and sinks for oxygen, carbon dioxide and nitrogen in our ocean?
c) What is meant by solubility?
d) How does temperature and pressure affect the solubility of gas?
e) What happens to pH (see below) when excess CO2 enters the ocean?
3. Regarding pH:
a) What does the pH scale tell you about the acidity or alkalinity of water?
b) What is the pH of pure water?
c) What is the pH of our ocean and why?
d) How does the acidity or alkalinity change as you go from one number to the next?
e) What does a buffer do?
Chapter #8 Study Guide
1. Describe and identify the following:
a) Hadley, Ferrel and Polar Cell
b) Meteorological Equator (or ITCZ)
d) Horse latitudes
e) Trade winds and Westerlies
f) Air masses and fronts
2. Regarding our atmosphere:
a) In what layer does most weather occur on Earth?
b) Know the top 2 components in our atmosphere.
c) Know how water vapor affects the density of dry air.
d) What happens to an air parcel as it is forced to rise or sink?
3. Regarding the influence of the Sun on our weather:
a) What causes summers and winters?
b) Know the fundamentals behind a sea and land breeze.
c) What is and what creates a monsoon?
d) What is a “rain shadow?”
e) What is meant by windward and leeward?
4. Regarding general wind patterns on Earth, answer these questions
a) How do winds “generally” move at different latitudes?
b) Where (what latitudes) on the planet would you find areas of very little surface wind motion but a lot of vertical air motion?
c) At what latitudes would you find deserts, why?
d) At what latitudes would you find rainy conditions, why?
e) From a weather map of surface pressure, determine the direction and general wind speeds at different locations (similar to your practice assignment).
5. Regarding the Coriolis Effect:
a) What is this effect caused by?
b) How are winds steered in the northern and southern hemispheres?
c) In what direction do winds rotate around a low and high pressure in the northern and southern hemispheres?
6. Regarding tropical storms:
a) Know how tropical storms rotate and what direction they typically travel.
b) How do winds move in the center of the storm?
c) Know the energy source for tropical storms/hurricanes.
d) What is usually the minimum temperature for hurricane formation?
e) Why don’t hurricanes form on the equator?