I need two responses, one for each peers. I need at least 6 paragraphs, 3 for each peers. I also need 4 references, 2 for each peers. The format has to be APA. Plagiarism will not be tolerated, the responses are going to be checked by the professor by Turnitin to detect plagiarism.
Question 1: Think about the ethical theories and approaches in Chapter 4 and the moral conflicts you have experienced in the past. Have you used one of these approaches to resolving conflict? Which theory or approach have you used?
Below is a list of ethical theories and approaches that govern the overall nursing role:
Ethics of care
Natural law theory
Deontology is one of the most significant theories in the nursing field. Essentially, this theory is fundamental in the conflict solving process. While deontology does not help resolve disputes by acting like an absolute tool, it does that by defining one’s character that influences their decision making (Haynes, 2016). In this case, an individual is bound to make decisions based on obligations and accountabilities of the subject.
Profoundly, human actions should be judged according to one’s duties concerning their morals. It means that the characteristics of a particular action renders it morally upright and not the consequences of that action. But some actions are indistinguishable hence rendering them morally good on the Deontology basis might be inappropriate (Cook, 2018). However, since there exist several theories an approach, then such actions might fall under a different elucidation.
Among the existing essential ethical theories, Deontology theory has dominated a significant part of my career beliefs (Hunt & Vitell, 2016). One of my roles as a nurse was to administer medicine to admitted patients according to doctor’s prescription. At one instance, I was to collect oxycodone from the hospital’s pharmacy, for a patient who was under intense pain. But to my surprise, the drugs were out of stock. According to the records, previously ordered oxycodone ought to have lasted until the next supply. I inquired about the inconvenience from the pharmacist in charge, and she denied. But after a few intimidations on reporting her to the medical officer in charge of the overall hospital, she admitted to having taken some home without the doctor’s consent. According to the hospital’s policy and moral ethics as well, such an act is bound to reporting. But when I learned that she had taken those drugs to take to her sick uncle who could not afford seeking services from the hospital, I let the issue go.
Question 2: Has there ever been a time when you have experienced the dilemma of having to make a choice that you know will affect the well-being of another individual? Have you ever experienced moral suffering?
Indeed, I have faced several tight spot situations in my nursing career, which have compelled me to make morally tormenting decisions. One Sunday evening, while I was in charge, the maternity ward was full. The hospitals’ policy clearly indicated that no patient should be discharged on a Sunday regardless of their condition.
I received a young woman who was apparently experiencing her labor pains. However, the admission ward did not have space for her. But a lady had already spent enough time in the hospital after delivery, and she was scheduled for discharge on the following day.
From the look of things, the woman appeared okay, and she would have provided space for the lady I pain without any inconveniences. But discharging her on that day was a violation of the institution’s policy, and I would have risked my job. So, I had to instruct the lady in pain together with her accomplices to find help from another hospital, while I knew that no hospital was nearby.
Cook, T. (2018). Deontologists Can Be Moderate. The Journal of Value Inquiry, 199-212.
Haynes, F. (2016). Ethics and Education. Encyclopedia of Educational Philosophy and Theory, 1-5.
Hunt, S., & Vitell, S. J. (2016). Personal Moral Codes and the Hunt-Vitell Theory of Ethics: Why Do People’s Ethical Judgments Differ?. . In Business ethics: New challenges for business school and corporate leaders.
There are many times in life when we are faced with a situation that forces us to think about our moral and ethical values in order to act. When in this position, our minds usually backtrack to the previous time we encountered a similar scenario, allowing us to compare the situation in order to decide. Sometimes this doesn’t help, and we are taken back to what we were taught in school and what our parents and loved ones taught us, “always do the right thing”, “don’t do unto others what you don’t want done unto you” (Confucius, n.d.)… The question remains, what is the right thing to do? What is the best course of action to take?
The theory I can relate to the most and have used to make decisions in the past has been Utilitarianism. To me, doing what maximizes good and happiness for the greatest number of people is always the best action to take (Masters, 2017). This is the basic principle of utilitarianism, which in a way is a form of consequentialism because when implemented, we have the outcome in mind, which is what is going to bring the most good and happiness to the greatest number of individuals and then, take that action (Nathanson, n.d.). This theory is one I try to live my life by and implement when I ever find myself in some sort of moral dilemma.
A scenario that comes to mind now regarding the use of this theory was not too long ago. It was last semester; I and a group of colleagues were studying for our Pediatrics final exam and we could not agree on what to study first. The environment become a little hectic until I decided to step up and tally what each person thought was best to study first. The result was, 4 of my peers wanted to start with developmental milestones and 1 wanted to go over heart defects. I spoke to all 5 and advised that we should do what the majority wanted to do first and then we would proceed with the heart. As a result, taking that action would bring the most happiness and pleasure to the greatest number involved. We all came into agreement and did just that, we started with the milestones and when finished we proceeded to study heart defects.
None of us are perfect and as per myself, I may be the worst of all. We did not come into this life with instructions or a manual that tells us what to do and how to do it when faced with a situation we can’t handle or feels out of our control. There have been many times when I have experienced the dilemma of having to make a decision, I knew would affect the well-being of another person and as a result I have experienced some sort of moral suffering.
I am not going to write about any of the times this has happened to me because I feel it is something person that I do not want to share and I don’t think I have to, but I will give an overview. The last time I was encountered with a situation like this, I was not able to be there for someone at a time they needed me most. I had to do something else that was also important, thus leaving that person’s side, making them feel awful and having me experience moral suffering or distress.
I knew I had to be there for that person, not only was it the right thing to do because they needed me at that time the most, but I felt I should have been there with them. As a result of not being able to stay due to the circumstances I was faced with, I felt extremely bad after and was faced with moral suffering. According to research, this happens to many nurses in our field, many times, they know a patient may need them, but because of shortage of time, other patients, meetings, and policy or protocols, they cannot be there for that patient the time they require. This causes them uncomfortable feelings and unbalances (Papazoglou, 2017).
Confucius. (n.d.). A quote by Confucius. Retrieved from https://www.goodreads.com/quotes/20771-don-t-do-unto-others-what-you-don-t-want-done-unto
Markovits, J. (n.d.). Ethics: Utilitarianism, Part 1. Retrieved from https://www.khanacademy.org/partner-content/wi-phi/wiphi-value-theory/wiphi-ethics/v/utilitarianism-part-1
Masters, K. (2017). Role development in professional nursing practice. Burlington, MA: Jones & Bartlett Learning.
Nathanson, S. (n.d.). Act and Rule Utilitarianism. Retrieved from https://www.iep.utm.edu/util-a-r/
Papazoglou, K., & Chopko, B. (2017, November 15). The Role of Moral Suffering (Moral Distress and Moral Injury) in Police Compassion Fatigue and PTSD: An Unexplored Topic. Retrieved from https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5694767/
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