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Unit 3

Histograms and Descriptive Statistics

Resources

Your first IBM SPPS assignment includes two sections in which you will:

- Create two histograms and provide interpretations.
- Calculate measures of central tendency and dispersion and provide interpretations.

Key Details and Instructions

- Submit your assignment as a Word document.
- Begin your assignment by creating a properly formatted APA title page. Include a reference list at the end of the document if necessary. On page 2, begin Section 1.
- Write your report in narrative format, integrating your SPSS output charts and tables with your responses to the specific requirements listed for this assignment. (See the Copy/Export Output Instructions in the Resources area.)
- Label all tables and graphs in a manner consistent with APA style and formatting guidelines. Citations, if needed, should be included in the text as well as in a reference section at the end of the report.
- Refer to the IBM SPSS Step-By-Step Guide: Histograms and Descriptive Statistics (in the Resources area) for additional help in completing this assignment.

Section 1: Histograms and Visual Interpretation

Section 1 will include one histogram of total scores for all the males in the data set, and one histogram of total scores for all the females in the data set.

Using the total and gender variables in your grades.sav data set, create two histograms:

- A histogram for male students.
- A histogram for female students.

Copy the histogram output from SPSS and paste it into a Word document. Below the histograms in your Word document, provide an interpretation based on your visual inspection. Correctly use all of the following terms in your discussion:

- Skew.
- Kurtosis.
- Outlier.
- Symmetry.
- Modality.

Comment on any differences between males and females regarding their total scores. Analyze the strengths and limitations of visually interpreting histograms.

Section 2: Calculate and Interpret Measures of Central Tendency and Dispersion

Using the grades.sav file, compute descriptive statistics, including mean, standard deviation, skewness, and kurtosis for the following variables:

- id
- gender
- ethnicity
- gpa
- quiz3
- total

Copy the descriptives output from SPSS and paste it into your Word document. Below the descriptives output table in your Word document:

- Indicate which variables are meaningless to interpret in terms of mean, standard deviation, skewness, and kurtosis. Justify your decision.
- Next, indicate which variables are meaningful to interpret. Justify your decision.
- For the meaningful variables, do the following:

- Specify any variables that are in the ideal range for both skewness and kurtosis.
- Specify any variables that are acceptable but not excellent.
- Specify any variables that are unacceptable.
- Explain your decisions.

For all meaningful variables, report and interpret the descriptive statistics (mean, standard deviation, skewness, and kurtosis).

** **

Unit 4 D1

Applying Hypothesis Testing

Resources

For this discussion, answer the following questions:

- What is a null hypothesis?
- What is an alternative hypothesis?

Then articulate a null hypothesis and alternative hypothesis for a research study that pertains to your area of specialization.

What conclusions can be drawn from this study with a “statistically significant” result?

Unit 5 D1

Correlation Versus Causation

Resources

If correlation does not imply causation, what does it imply? Are there ever any circumstances when a correlation can be interpreted as evidence for a causal connection between two variables? If yes, what circumstances?

Unit 5 D2

Interpreting Correlations

Resources

A meta-analysis (Anderson & Bushman, 2001) reported that the average correlation between time spent playing video games ( *X*) and engaging in aggressive behavior ( *Y*) in a set of 21 well-controlled experimental studies was .19. This correlation was judged to be statistically significant. In your own words, what can you say about the nature of the relationship?

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