The use of abstracts has become a familiar entity in today’s works of literature. In a world clouded with literature, an abstract become a selection tool for what we want to read. It is, therefore, essential to know how to write an effective abstract for a research paper.
An abstract is a short, in-depth summary that describes the contents of a larger document. With this definition of an abstract in a research paper, we can assume an abstract to be like a preview of a larger paper. Typically, an abstract uses 150 -250 words contained in 6-7 sentences. Abstracts provide a platform where a reader can grasp the main ideas of the document without reading the whole of the work.
Abstracts are usually necessary for the following documents
There are two types of abstracts:
The descriptive or indicative abstract provides brief information on the contents of the paper without giving much detail. This type of abstract relays information in the form of a table of contents that is in a paragraph.
The informative abstract or a complete abstract gives more information than the descriptive abstracts. They provide a comprehensive summary of the background information, the purpose, the methodology, the results as well as the conclusions. The informative abstract summarizes the key points of the paper.
The following are the main features of an abstract
What is the importance of these elements? Read on to find out.
The introduction of an abstract relates to the purpose of the study. A reader can grasp what the paper is all about by reading through the introductory part of the abstract.
A good abstract gives a brief account of the methods used in the collection of the data present in the document. However, much detail on the procedures appears in the main paper.
An abstract also gives a brief account of the outcomes of the research study. The outcomes should relate to the purpose(s) indicated in the introductory part. The outcomes
The conclusion derived from the study should also appear in the abstract. The conclusion reinstates the importance of conducting the investigations.
5. Try to be as clear as possible, assuming that the audience has no previous knowledge of the topic. Consequently, avoid any undefined or unexplained abbreviations and acronyms.
6. A good abstract uses relevant abstract keywords for correct classification and proper indexing. The keywords in abstracts are always unique to the subject matter.
Academic researches always need a submission of the abstract alongside the theses or the dissertations. The abstracts give a dissertation summary of the whole paper. This ways, lecturers or supervisors can determine the contents of your study before going through the paper. It is, therefore, essential to know how to write an effective abstract for a research paper.
Below are essential tips on how to write an effective abstract for a research paper.
With these essential tips on how to write an abstract for thesis will come in when writing
In the field of law, an abstract is a brief document that highlights the important points in a single legal report or related materials.
The Abstract of Title is the most common type of legal abstracts. This type of abstract is common in real estate transactions.
APA format is a formal style of the American Psychological Association (APA) used in the field of physiology and other social sciences. The format provides guidelines that specify different aspects of a document. For instance, guideline dictates the presentation, the position and numbering of the pages, the order of references, and how to include citations. Moreover, the format stipulates the use of an abstract.
An APA abstract highlights the following key points:
An abstract is an important part of any professional or academic paper. The abstract provides a brief overview and therefore serves as the summary of the paper. A good abstract is important in accurately presenting the paper. The reader should be able to note the key points by reading through the abstract.
Fortunately, by following the guide on how to write an effective abstract, you can create a good abstract. A good abstract generally makes a reader interested in reading your work.
According to the guidelines provided by the American Psychological Association (APA), an abstract must be:
How long is an abstract? Well, according to the sixth edition of the American Psychological Association manual, an abstract should be 150-250 words long. However, the guideline gives allowances of variations according to the instructions of the instructor. The word count may vary according to the length of the paper or the complexity of the subject matter.
Note that an unstructured abstract is written in one long paragraph, while a structured paragraph has various sections.
The American Psychological Association (APA) manual has specific guidelines on how to format any paper. The unique guide dictates the following:
The American Psychological Association (APA) manual recommends the addition of keywords at the end of the abstract. Include a short listing of the keywords to aid in indexing in case the paper enters a database. The listing helps researchers in locating the paper.
The APA abstract keywords should:
Below is an example of the use of keywords in an abstract. The author of the book chose to include the words in the title as the keywords of the paper.
Extracted From: Post-Polio Syndrome: A Guide for Polio Survivors and Their Families (pp. 21-26), Julie K. Silver, Yale University Press (2001)
Keywords: Polio, Paralysis, Symptoms, Postpoliomyelitis Syndrome, Medical diagnosis, Legs, Physicians, Strokes, Misdiagnosis
Even as you go through the guide on how to write an effective abstract for a research paper, it is equally important to know what to avoid.
The quality of an abstract can be assessed using the following methods:
Examples of abstracts
Study the research abstract examples below understand how to write an effective abstract for a research paper.
“This research study explored the pattern of the usage of video games and the addiction of video games among male college students and examined how the addiction was related to the college grade point average (GPA), on-campus drug and alcohol violations. Participants were 488 males, first-year students at a liberal arts college. In the week before the start of classes, participants were given two surveys: one of expected college engagement, and the second of video game usage, including a measure of video game addiction. Results suggested that video game addiction is (a) negatively correlated with the college grade point average (GPA), (b) negatively correlated with college GPA, even when controlling for high school GPA, and (c) negatively correlated with drug and alcohol violations that occurred during the first year in college. Results are discussed in terms of implications for male students’ engagement and success in college, and terms of the construct validity of video game addiction.”
Let’s have a keen study on the abstract above
First, the above abstract does not clearly state why the problem presented is worth researching, even though it implies that the focus of the study is addiction.
Secondly, the abstract does not openly state the implications of the study. It is always advisable to summarize the outcomes of the study even though sometimes it is impossible to include the information in a few sentences. In this case, just a statement would be enough to summarize the results and implications. The abstract above uses a statement to provide the results and consequences of the study.
“Introduction: Study skills and satisfaction of students with their performance positively influences their academic achievement. The current research was carried out to investigate the correlation of study skills with academic achievement among the medical and pharmacy students in 2013.
Methods: This descriptive-analytical study was conducted on 148 students of basic medical sciences and pharmacy through convenience sampling. Data were collected by a valid and reliable questionnaire, consisting of two sections: Demographic information and questions about daily study hours, study skills in six domains, and students’ satisfaction with study skills. Collected data sets were analyzed by SPSS-16 software.
Results: In total, 10.9% of students were reported to have favorable study skills. The minimum score was found for preparation for the examination domain. Also, a significantly positive correlation was observed between students’ study skills and their Grade Point Average (GPA) of the previous term (P=0.001, r=0.269) and satisfaction with study skills (P=0.001, r=0.493).
Conclusion: The findings indicated that students’ study skills need to be improved. Given the significant relationship between study skills and GPA, as an index of academic achievement, and satisfaction, it is necessary to promote the students’ study skills. These skills are suggested to be reinforced, with more emphasis on weaker domains.”
The journal abstract example below is an original abstract of the ‘Sagepub Journal.’
The topic of the research: THE RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN CELL PHONE USE AND ACADEMIC PERFORMANCE IN A SAMPLE OF U.S. COLLEGE STUDENTS
The cell phone is ever-present on college campuses and is frequently used in settings where learning occurs. This study assessed the relationship between cell phone use and actual college grade point average (GPA) after controlling for known predictors. As such, 536 undergraduate students from 82 self-reported majors at a large, public university were sampled. A hierarchical regression (R2 = .449) demonstrated that cell phone use was significantly (p < .001) and negatively (β = −.164) related to actual college GPA after controlling for demographic variables, self-efficacy for self-regulated learning, self-efficacy for academic achievement, and actual high school GPA, which were all significant predictors (p < .05). Thus, after controlling for other established predictors, increased cell phone use was associated with decreased academic performance. Although more research is needed to identify the underlying mechanisms, findings suggest a need to sensitize students and educators about the potential academic risks associated with high-frequency cell phone use.
Keywords: education, technology, ICT, Mobile phones, smartphones, GPA, self- efficacy
This example is also an original abstract by the original work of ‘Sagepub Journals.’
The topic of the journal: THE PROCESS OF ADAPTING A UNIVERSAL DATING ABUSE PREVENTION PROGRAM TO ADOLESCENTS EXPOSED TO DOMESTIC VIOLENCE
Adolescents exposed to domestic violence are at increased risk of dating abuse, yet no evaluated dating abuse prevention programs have been designed specifically for this high-risk population. This article describes the process of adapting Families for Safe Dates (FSD), an evidenced-based universal dating abuse prevention program, to this high-risk population, including conducting 12 focus groups and 107 interviews with the target audience. FSD includes six booklets of dating abuse prevention information, and activities for parents and adolescents to do together at home. We adapted FSD for mothers who were victims of domestic violence, but who no longer lived with the abuser, to do with their adolescents who had been exposed to the violence. Through the adaptation process, we learned that families liked the program structure and valued being offered the program and that some of our initial assumptions about this population were incorrect. We identified the practices and beliefs of mother victims and attributes of these adolescents that might increase their risk of dating abuse that we had not previously considered. In addition, we learned that some of the content of the original program generated negative family interactions for some. The findings demonstrate the utility of using a careful process to adopt evidence-based interventions (EBIs) to cultural sub-groups, particularly the importance of obtaining feedback on the program from the target audience. Others can follow this process to adapt EBIs to groups other than the ones for which the original EBI was designed.
Dating abuse prevention, program adaptation, exposure to domestic violence
The above examples are original works excerpted from journals. With these examples, you can study how researchers paraphrase their work into a summary. With these, you can figure out how to write a strong abstract.
In conclusion, an abstract becomes more natural to write when you have a guide on how to write an effective abstract for a research paper. The guide above will come in handy when writing an abstract. However, in case you are still experiencing difficulties in writing abstracts, you can easily contact us for help. Buying homework help from Myhomeworkwriters.com is fast and reliable.
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