Global Cities | Online Assignment Help
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In this Wiki page, your focus is only on Cairo!!. please label each part.
I will attach an example of the wiki page.
Answer all question PLEASE
Here are the 3 parts.
PART I: Provide a brief history of the city. What are its demographics and how have they changed over time? Please also address the city’s physical and social geography. Include a discussion of economic inequality here – is inequality present? (Minimum: 600 words)
Things to consider for Part I:
- How the city has changed, particularly within the 20th century
- The city’s demographic by ethnicity – how many foreign born?
- The city’s demographic by class – who are the “haves” and the “have-nots”?
- The city’s physical and social geography. What groups of people live where?
PART II: How has the city been affected by globalization? Please provide the city’s economic and cultural contributions at the minimum. If applicable, you may also apply the city’s political contributions. Feel free to use a Global City Index as a foundation for answering this question. (Minimum: 600 words)
Things to consider for Part II:
- Recent immigration trends
- Tourism (who visits the city?)
- The city’s role in spreading some cultural awareness around the world
- Industries that dominate the city’s economy
- The presence of multinational corporations (MNCs)
- International political presence
PART III: What does the future hold for this city? In other words, how do the globalizing trends that you have described in Part II affect the prospects for your city? (Minimum: 600 words)
Things to consider for Part III:
- Signs that the economic fabric of the city is changing. Are there significant changes in industry?
- Signs that the cultural fabric of the city is changing. Are there significant changes in demography?
- How is the city planning for the future? Is there a strategic plan?
Format: Be careful to avoid plagiarism by citing all sources, whether written or electronic. You are encouraged to add visual content to your page. Unless you are creating original content, you MUST provide credit to the source!
Kuala Lumpur is the capital city of Malaysia and the largest city in the nation. Its current population is estimated to be near 1.8 million. Located in the state of Selangor and on the peninsular region, it is part of the greater Kuala Lumpur metropolitan area. Situated in Klang Valley, the area is the center of Malaysia’s population and economic activity. The valley is large and fairly flat and as such contributed greatly to the areas of construction. Development has been faster in the capital city then any other city in Malaysia.
Like many large cities, Kuala Lumpur has distinct city sections. Center city is best known for being the commercial, entertainment, and shopping district of the city. Its residents are a mix of multi ethnicities with a common thread of high income. Other affluent areas include Damansara Heights and Sri Hartamas both home to high income ex-patriots from Asia and western nations. Brickfields is known as “Little India”. Situated south of the city and is known for colorful shops and Indian food. Petaling Street is the Chinatown section
of the city. It is one of the oldest parts of the city and boasts a mix of small shops and boutiques as well as street food vendors. It is also home to the oldest Hindu temple in the city. The Ampang District is best known as Little Korea.
The climate is that of a tropical rainforest with abundant rain fall though out the year. A monsoon season lasts form October to March bringing more rain during that period. Annual rainfall often exceeds 100 inches. Due to the cities latitude and proximity to the ocean temperatures remain constant and extremes are rare. The supply and reliability of water has also aided the region to experience growth for industry housing and agriculture.
In its early years, the area that is now the city was a terminus for ship traffic that serviced the tin mines further up river. This was the point where the river could not support traffic to move further upstream. The early settlement was used to service the mines, and later grew to a small town. The exact time the city was first called Kuala Lumpur is not known. Evidence suggests its formal start as a formal town from what had been an outpost took place around 1860. Early settlers include Chinese and Malay ethnicities.
Fire, flooding, war, and diseases conspired to halt further development. The sheer will of the people to overcome lead to rebuilding and expansion. New arrivals of Muslim Indians as well as people from Britain brought new cultural elements that survive today. The population expanded exponentially during the late 1800s. Investments were made to the infrastructure such as roads, railways, schools, and governance.
The city and region has witnessed dramatic growth of both population and economic prosperity during the 1900s. The city became not only the primary shipping port, but the economic hub of the nation. The city served new industry such as rubber production.
Only the invasion by the Japanese during WWII could slow the pace of development. Post war Kula Lumpur continued to grow both in size and economic output.
In 1957 the British relinquished control of what is now Malaysia. Kuala Lumpur was made the nations capital. Growth has been steady up to the time of this writing. Current GDP growth for the city area is nearly 6%; the fastest in the region. Fueling the growth is an expanding manufacturing base, financial and insurance industries, and tourism. The expanding middle class supports retail and consumer driven operations.
Culturally the city is as diverse as its economy. Malaysians and Chinese make up a near equal portion of the population with about 45% each. Next is Indians that are about 10% with less then 1% from else where. Islam is the dominant religion with about 46% of the population followed by Buddhism at 37% then Hinduism at 8.5% and Christianity at 5.8%. The look and feel of the city is a mix of modern western with modern Asian as well as traditional Islamic styles. High rise glass towers with ornate lighting and graceful curing structures show it is a modern city and is on the move.
The growing economy is capable to providing employment to nearly every one. With a steady unemployment rate of less than 4% it is the envy of South East Asia. One problem is that many of the new jobs are for high skilled workers. Older people with out a good education and new migrants may not benefit as much as younger educated people. A new wave of illegal immigrants from Indonesia and elsewhere take the few unskilled jobs that pay less and have few or no benefits. Unlike many Asian cities or many world cities Kuala Lumpur does not have a high poverty rate or slum areas. Housing ranges from basic apartment to expensive high rise units and even traditional single family homes.
The growth of Kuala Lumpur outpaced the growth of other cities in the region including those in Indonesia and Thailand due to foreign investment and relative political stability. It has attracted both capital and talent from elsewhere on the globe. Malaysia is a federal constitution elective monarchy, however the king’s role is largely ceremonial. Its legislative branch is similar to our house of representatives and senate. Parliamentary and state elections are held every 5 years. The Prime Minister and Cabinet have executive power. The judiciary has appointed judges. In addition, the Syariah courts use Syariah law for Muslims.
The architecture and lay-out of Kuala Lumpur started as purely functional in that it was an outpost to support mining and later rubber production. Later as the village became a town then a city, it took on ascetic features in its buildings, parks, and lay out. The people that came to the city brought with them stylistic themes such as traditional Chinese, Islamic, and western Tudor elements. As financial institutions and government operations moved into the city new modern elements were added. Because most of the
cities expansion took place in the 1900s, planning was made for modern street lay outs, proper infrastructure such as water and sewer, and public transport. The center city area has been rebuilt with modern high rise and ascetically pleasing structures. The city has kept a clean fresh look for decades.
The iconic Petronas Towers give the city instant identity as does the Eiffel Tower in Parris or the World Trade Center gave New York. Few other cities offer the mix of old world Islamic buildings with arches and domes alongside modern glass towers and high end single family homes as one would find in suburban USA. Like many cites Kuala Lumpur has areas with unique features.
The Bukit Bintang district is known for its upscale shopping and as a destination for young people. The trendy cafes, clubs and restaurants also attract young and old. The area is known for its night life. Unlike most parts of the Islamic world, the youth can party and drink at night and women do not need to wear a burka. The high-end consumer goods sold in the area include Louis Vuitton, Christian Dior, and Rolex to name a few. Setiawangsa is located just outside Center City. It features upscale town homes and expensive single family homes that are set in the hills. The main roads have shopping that one could find in most US cities. One could shop at 7-11 for coffee in the morning and eat lunch at KFC.
Batu is the poorest area of the city. It’s a housing district with mostly public housing units. It also has a high crime rate. Lembah Pantai is a working-class area of the city. It has mixed housing. The city, while centered in Asia, has adopted many cultural, economic, and architectural themes. The founders, developers, and investors have taken cues from all parts of the world. Kampung Baru has traditional Malay wooden houses and quaint cafes with traditional Maylay food. Originally created by the British to allow the Maylays to retain their culture, the area now resists large scale development in the attempt to maintain Maylay culture. One other ethnic enclave is Sentul in the northern part of Kuala Lumpur. It is home to a large number of Tamils from India with a distinct language. British partitioning, economics and ethnic consolidation help shape physical and cultural landscape of the city.
Today Kuala Lumpur is the most dynamic in the region. It has become a hub and magnet for multinationals to set up headquarters and sales operations. Its size, stability and skilled labor pool sets it apart from other nations in the region. As a result, it has become a gateway to south east Asia. Companies that have operations in the city include Hewlett Packard, Kellogg’s, Siemens, Sony, Robert Bosh, BMW, IBM, and Dupont. They bring with them employment and culture. The foreign owned companies all contribute to the multi-cultural way of thinking that adds to the city. The knowledge transfer has allowed the local people to learn the skills needed to work at globally run operations. Many people may travel into and out of the city to other nations for training or employment. Local and state owned companies also contribute to the labor market. Petronas is a state-owned oil and gas company. Worldwide it employs 51,000 people. It is headquartered in the Petronas Towers in Kuala Lumpur. Health care operations, a strong manufacturing base, shipping, and a large banking sector also add options for employment. The need to serve the Islamic market from a strong stable area has made the city the center for Islamic financial operations and was a reason why Nestle set up its halal certified center to make and export products to fill the demands from other Islamic states.
Tourism has continued to expand and is becoming an important part of the economy. Attractions include the gleaming downtown with its iconic construction, museums, world class entertainment, and many cultural options. It is the regions epicenter for upscale shopping and night life. It has become a hot spot for health care tourism adding billions to its economy each year. Globalization has not only brought brand name retail and multinational corporate employment but also secondary educational options. Many off shore universities have set up physical campus locations in and around the city. Education is a key element to sustain growth and allow the younger residents to gain employment in a modern economy. The key to the cities success is proper planning, improving infrastructure, low crime, educational opportunities, and welcoming foreign investment. The future includes diversification and expanding the service sector. The result has been a low poverty rate, high employment opportunities, and high satisfaction index of living. The nation and city offered incentives to companies to set up operations. They also offered educational classes to help train its labor force.
Malaysia as a whole has seen rapid economic growth for the past 30 years. Several factors are involved for the steady dynamic growth. First, is government planning to transform the economy from agrarian to a diversified modern economy. Another factor is the huge dividends from the state petroleum industry. Lastly, private investment both local and foreign has helped build a modern manufacturing and finance based system. Other efforts to diversify the economy include tourism and education. Kuala Lampur is the epicenter for growth. The growth of the GDP has helped ease but not eliminate economic inequalities. Malaysia was part of the “East Asian Miracle” and had a head start because it had a better educated labor force.
The future for Kuala Lumpur is being planned now. The Malaysian government, the city leaders, the business owners, and residents are all providing input. On a national level, the government wants to further diversify its economy. It plans more talent based job creation such as research and development, aircraft service and support, financial operations, and high tech manufacturing. It wants to have less dependency on oil production and agriculture. To help the younger people be prepared for the jobs of tomorrow, the government has put a priority on secondary educational opportunities.
Over the last few decades the city and region has experienced a rapid rise in incomes on all levels. For this city, the rising tide has truly lifted all boats. While economic disparity can be found in all cities, Kuala Lumpur did not have a large population prior to its economic growth. Thus, it did not have a large pool of poor people to start with. Many emerging cities have an endemic number of poor and poorly educated people that cannot adjust to the changing labor conditions. Other cities have policies that allow land squatters to set up shanty towns within city limits and then provide no services.
The road to becoming a world class city has not always been a smooth one. Ethnic strife became prominent after Maylaya, the forerunner of what is now Malaysia became independent from Great Britain in 1957. At that time the ethnic Chinese had more wealth and power then the majority Maylay people. After independence, the Maylay people sought Maylay supremacy, that is to say they should have dominance in governing the new nation. A number of clashes and race riots occurred over the intervening years. The ethnic scars from those events have largely been healed. Occasionally, demonstrations and marches by both Chinese and ethnic Maylays take place. In 2015, tens of thousands of Malaysians marched in the capitol and were met by riot police in the Chinatown section. One continuing factor for the tensions is that the Chinese that make up only a quarter of the population have more economic power than the ethnic Maylays.
Although the city and nation are in no way xenophobic, the region has not seen large numbers of immigration from outside its core demographics. The mix of ethnicity has not changed significantly over the past few decades. The current trend is to teach and train the citizens of the nation to take on the role of senior management that are now held by expatriates. To be clear, the policy is not to push out the foreign people that work in the state. The sate makes it easy to gain work visas and long term guest programs.
The culture of the city is in many ways unique. It is Islamic by both the number of people that identify as following Islam and that the official state religion is Islam. Despite this, the nation and city have offered the people freedom to practice any religion they choose. The other significant difference is the far more liberal social policy of the state. Many Islamic nations segregate men and women in public places, do not allow women to drive, and have strict Religious Vice laws with special police to enforce Sharia Law. As a result, the city has attracted liberal and moderate people of the Islamic faith.
The current trends include greater local sports such as large scale soccer, grand prix, Asian basketball, and even hosting the Olympics. World class Broadway style shows and entertainment, and even western style golfing. The area is also investing in media such as film production and now has an uncensored internet. Future plans are to expand IT operations and its stock market exchange. In all, the city should remain welcoming. The Chinese can find print and radio formats in their language and because Britain controlled the area you will find many people and business speak the language. You will also find print and radio service in English. The city strives to invite tourists to see its attractions and stay at its many fine hotels. While many cities are on the decline, this city has found a way to stay fresh and vibrant. It has found its road map to success.
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