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Air Pollution by Haze

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Abstract

Air pollution is a critical problem of the modern world, which has posed dangerous toxicological effects to the environment and human health. Haze is among the most significant pollutants of the new civilized world. Haze originates from various emissions; however, industrial processes and vehicular emissions contribute to significant factors that lead to the formation of haze. As documented by the World Health Organization, six principal air contaminants include ground-level ozone, lead, nitrogen oxides, carbon monoxides, and Sulphur dioxide. Continuous exposure to factors that contribute to the formation of haze promote various toxicological effects on human life such as cardiovascular as well as respiratory ailments, irritation of the eyes, long term chronic ailments like cancer, and neuropsychiatric issues. Air pollution by haze is reported to be a major environmental threat in the progression and incidence of some health complications such as low birth weight, asthma, Alzheimer and Parkinson’ diseases, lung cancer, autism, fetal growth, psychological problems, and ventricular hypertrophy. In this research paper, major causes of pollution by haze are discussed, emission sources and subsequent effects on human wellbeing.

 

Air Pollution by Haze

The social and economic activities of densely populated areas release large volumes of fine particulate matters. While these fine particulate materials unendingly pile beyond the ability of atmospheric self-cleaning to eradicate it, the haze weather is created. Haze weather is usually a mixture of the effects of stable and static weather. Current scientific studies conducted mostly in western Europe and North America demonstrate that air pollution in urban areas as a result of haze is triggering numerous health issues from eye itching to death. Increase in the speed for urbanization and industrialization in major cities of the world has led to growth in the badness of urban air pollution. “Amounts of fine particles are usually in thousands of micrograms in cubic meter across many cities of the world that are going through modern industrialization” (Astrobum, Apr 30 2017).  Grievous installments of air pollution have wrapped a better part of the world. By November 2015, for instance, in China, the cities located to the northern area of the country have recently experienced high levels of haze due to the rise in particulate matter. The particulate matter increased from 360 to 700 µg/m3 up to 28 times much above the levels recommended by the world health organization (WHO).

Exposure to particulate matter has often been linked with numerous health problems; however, issues related to mortality are undeniably the most important to address since they are also among the prevalently amenable issues to the assessment of the world. Most epidemiological data and evidence on quality of air that would be employed in evaluating such approximations originate from developed nation. According to Costa et al., (2014) deaths caused by air pollution is on the rise, and the situation is worsening every year worldwide. Due to exorbitant problems triggered by air pollution in the cities today, the paper finds it critical to discuss the effects associated with haze in affecting the quality of air. It is, therefore, significant to describe the issue of haze in polluting the air, haze’s toxic impacts on the health of humanity and give necessary environmental frameworks as well as the necessary protocols in the industry of air pollution.

 

Background

Ecologically, pollution of air can lead to severe environmental hazards to essential components of survival such as air, water, and soil. Moreover, it is a grievous risk to the diversity of life on earth. Compelling studies on the correlation between pollution of air and species diversity reduction vividly indicate the destructive impacts of environmental contaminants on the eradication of plants and animals’ diversity (Andersen et al., 2015). Toxicants that are suspended in the air may also prompt reproductive complications in animals’ species. Global climate change, acid rain, and temperature inversion, as a result of the release of greenhouse gases into the atmosphere, are among the most significant environmental effects of air pollution.

 

Air Pollutants and Related Toxicities

Presence of haze in the atmosphere is a resultant of a combination of various pollutants in the air. Urman et al., (2014) define air pollutants as every material found in the atmosphere that is detrimental to human life or leads to serious effects on the environment. According to the data shared by the WHO, haze pollution, nitrogen oxides, ground-level O3 lead (Pb), and sulfur oxides are the six key air pollutants which are detrimental to the ecosystem as well as human health. Other than the six major air pollutants there are other pollutants suspended in the air including gaseous pollutants, smokes, fumes, volatile organic compounds, halogen, mists, hydrocarbons, dust, and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons which when they are highly concentrated in the air can make human beings to be susceptible to exuberant diseases that are dangerous such as cancers. The most critical air pollutants, together with their toxic impacts on various human body parts and organs as well as associated diseases, have been briefly elaborated below.

 

Haze

Haze is comprised of fog, whereby the main elements of haze are fine particulate matter, nitrogen oxides, ground-level O3, carbon monoxide, lead (Pb), and CO sulfur oxides. These harmful gases are released when there is high emission in the industries which goes beyond the existing capacity of the atmosphere to hold such pollutants. Nowak eta l., (2014) argues that the release of nitrogen and Sulphur dioxide is varied across many industries; therefore, it leads to disparity in the demand for energy and emissions. Scholars have demonstrated that industrial development in the cities of the world has the most profound impacts on the ecological system when compared with tertiary and primary industry.

Over the years, major cities of the world have prioritized industrial development as the most fundamental factor of economic improvement and job creation. As a result, the cities are compelled to optimize the industrial design in order to accelerate the upgrading of industries, which in turn promotes the development of tertiary industries. As these industries dominate the cities, the rate of electricity consumption increases, and the energy consumption is among the key factors that aggravate the release of nitrogen oxides and Sulphur dioxide. The presence of heavy industry that is constructed for the usage of pollutants like Sulphur dioxide and traditional coal from burning materials that are mixed with fog and dust in the atmosphere are the key components of that lead to the formation of haze.

Nitrogen Oxides

Nitrogen oxides are among the most critical air pollutants that may easily make humanity to be vulnerable to dangers of respiratory infections. They are traffic-oriented air pollutants since they are released from motor engines. Nitrogen oxides irritate deep in the lungs, and when inhaled in high amounts, they can promote pulmonary edema. Exposures to nitrogen oxides at 2.5 to 5.0 ppm have been demonstrated to impact on the killer cells significantly, and T-lymphocytes more so the CD8+ cells which serve a crucial role in developing strong body immune against viruses (Fang et al., 2016). The most prevalent nitrogen related toxicity complications include wheezing and coughing although fever, headache, bronchospasm, throat, eyes or nose irritations, dyspnea chest pain, and pulmonary edema may also accompany the toxicity of nitrogen oxides.

 

Ground level Ozone (O3)

O3 is a colorless gas that constitutes a major part of the atmosphere. It is located on the surface of the ground and in the upper locales of the troposphere. Ground level ozone (GLO) is emitted due to chemical reactions between volatile organic compounds (VOCs) and nitrogen oxides released because of human activities and natural sources. GLO is closely associated with increased risks of respiratory ailments, especially asthma. GLO is believed to be a potential oxidant, and it has the ability to combine with electrons coming from other molecules. O3 promotes a range of toxic problems in experimental animals and humans at concentrations that happen in most of the city areas. These impacts include biochemical, functional, morphologic, and immunologic changes. Due to the toxicant’s low solubility with water, it easily gets absorbed into the human lungs when inhaled. Rylance et al., (2015) asserts that on the concept of ecological effects, ground-level ozone has the ability to reduce the assimilation of carbon in trees triggering deforestation, which in turn may affect world food security when emitted for the long term.

 

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Carbon Monoxide

CO is an odorless and colorless gas, emitted when fossil fuels are combusted, especially when the approach of burning the fuels is not the right one, for instance burning wood and coal. Carbon monoxide has a high affinity to hemoglobin, which is oxygen carried in the human body. The affinity of CO is approximated to be 250 times higher than that of oxygen. Depending on the levels of accumulation of CO and the period as well as the length of exposure, meek to severe poisoning may be reported. According to Lelieveld et al., (2015) the most common symptoms of poisoning associated with CO include weakness, dizziness, vomiting, nausea, headache, and eventually lost consciousness.

The ischemia, hypoxia, and apoptosis are the well-known mechanisms of toxicity that surround CO. These toxicity lead to loss of fresh air as a result of the competitive accumulation of CO in the heme groups of hemoglobin. Exposures of CO that are above 5% have been demonstrated to cause cardiovascular alterations. From the report given by the health institute effects after conducting a series of studies to assess the effects of CO and its sociability in causing cardiovascular changes in order to determine angina pectoris with the levels of CO between 2 to 6%. The outcomes proved that immature angina occurs under such circumstances; however, there is undercity of ventricular arrhythmias; therefore, the minimization in ambient CO can cut on the dangers of myocardial infarction to persons who are predisposed to these pollutants.

Sulfur Dioxide

Sulfur dioxide is a highly reactive gas and a very serious air pollutant. It is often released from use of fossil fuels, industrial processes in the cities, and natural volcanic activities. Sulfur dioxide is extremely hazardous to human health, plant, and animal life. Individuals suffering from lung infections, seniors, and children as well as those people who are excessively exposed to Sulphur dioxide stand a high risk of getting lung and skin infections (Lelieveld et al., 2015). The most alarming health problems related to exposure to Sulphur dioxide include aggravation of already infected cardiovascular ailments, dysfunction, and irritation. The gas is characterized as sensory irritant hence causing mucus and bronchus spasm discharge in human beings. People who reside in cities that are highly industrialized with excessive emissions, even with slight exposure to Sulphur dioxide is believed to be able to cause bronchitis.

Relying on the information of environmental protection agency (EPA), situated in the United States of America, the annual standards of Sulphur dioxide level is about 0.05 ppm. Since it is soluble in water, it leads to soil acidification and formation of acid rain. The gas reduces oxygen levels in the water bodies resulting in the death of marine life, that is both plants and animals. Lelieveld et al., (2015) suggest continuous exposure to Sulphur dioxide can damage eyes by implicating the corneal opacity and lacrimation. Furthermore, the exposure to the gas damages the mucous membranes, respiratory systems, and skin. According to the clinical findings of the effects of Sulphur dioxide on biodiversity, the exposure to this pollutant leads to bronchospasm, pneumonitis, pulmonary edema, and obstruction to acute airwave.

Lead

Lead is a heavy metal and toxicant commonly used across various industries. The pollution related to the use of lead can come from both the outdoor and indoor sources. Lead is released particularly from motor engines designed to run on petrol containing lead tetraethyl. Irrigation water wells, battery plants, wastewaters, and smelters are other significant sources that emit lead into the atmosphere. Assessment of the level of lead in the blood of traffic officers indicates pollution of environment could be attributed to exposure of lead. Edward, (April 1, 2013) posits that children and fetuses are the most vulnerable species to lead exposure. Lead is believed to have a high affinity of accumulating in the soft body tissue, blood, and bones. Due to its readiness of excretion, lead is a severe threat to the kidneys, nervous system, liver as well as other important organs of in the body.

Exposure to lead is mostly chronic and devoid of symptoms. It affects various parts of the body, such as the reproductive system, cardiovascular, and the renal system. However, the primary target of lead infection has been demonstrated to be the nervous system. “The metal interrupts the normal operation of intracellular second messenger connections via the use of N-methyl-D-aspartate receptors.” Edward, (April 1, 2013). Additionally, lead can substitute calcium as a secondary messenger to enhance modification of protein through different cellular functions like protein kinase deactivation or activation.

The most prevalent symptoms associated with lead poisoning include anemia, headaches, aggression, abdominal pain, memory loss, sleep disorders, reduced sensations, loss of concentration, and irritability. Continuous exposure to lead triggers health problems such as joint and muscle pain, renal and digestive malfunction, infertility, and high blood pressure.

Various studies have demonstrated that combustion of fossil fuels forms the largest portion of air pollution. Depending on the source of air pollution, air contaminants can be categorized as natural and anthropogenic. From the anthropogenic context, air pollution happens as a result of agricultural and industrial activities of human beings, energy acquisition, as well as transportation. Whereas from natural pollutants understanding, pollution occurs from different factors of emissions, including forest fire, volcanic eruptions, and seawater. Since air pollution is a dreadful factor to biodiversity, authorities need to develop practical measures to eradicate air contamination.

Organization Profile

The WHO plays a crucial role in protecting the environment against pollution originating from haze factors of pollution. The objective of WHO through public health, environmental and social determinants of health care to reduce the effects of outdoor air contamination to the public health. The actions and services provided in reducing the effects of air pollution to public health are through tackling the primary sources that lead to outdoor air pollution such as incomplete combustion of fossil fuels from vehicular transportation, advancing energy efficiency techniques in manufacturing and buildings as well as generation of power (World Health Organization, 2014).

The WHO believes that reducing the health problems resulting from urban air pollution exceeds the efforts of individuals and needs substantial action by the authorities at the international, regional, and national levels. The public health sector is an integral creating awareness about a multisectoral measure to avoid exposure to the air pollution from outdoor sources. This can be achieved through support and engagement to the practices of other related sectors such as industries, transport, energy, and housing to establish and implement long-lasting programs and policies focused on reducing air pollution and in turn lead to quality public health.

The WHO has two main sources of funding which are contributions by member states who give a relative share depending on the country’s population and wealth. According to United States Environmental Protection Agency, (2019) since 2006 the member states contributions make up to 25% of all the WHO revenues. Government funding through assessed contributions play a big role in the budgeting of WHO in the fight against air pollution. The second means of funding for WHO is from voluntary contributions which total up to 75% of the annual revenues of WHO. These voluntary contributions are primarily given by private interests.

 

Literature Review

Today, haze has slowly become the center for social interest. The available academic debates about haze, basically concentrate on describing the severe impacts of haze on the health of humanity, more specifically serious damage to the cardiovascular and respiratory system. Some contemporary studies have even posited that continuous exposure to high levels of accumulated haze can affect fertility in male. Looking at economic understanding, the available research can be categorized into two contexts. First and foremost, haze is believed to be the reason for the devastating losses incurred in the medical treatment and transportation economies. From the examination issued by the world bank in 2008, the cumulative health loss incurred economically due to the effect of urban air contamination globally hit 700 billion yuan a decade ago. Subsequently, in 2007, the economic sabotage as a consequence of air contamination in the area of pearl river delta reached 43.2 yuan. The relevant economic losses in the world in 2010 because of air pollution by haze in major cities such as Xi, Beijing, and Shanghai totaled to over 7.89 billion metrics.

Secondly, the haze has triggered the need for protective goods such as air purifiers and masks. As much as the pharmaceutical sector has seen tremendous growth, the issue of haze has significantly shaped. World Health Organization, (2014) have disclosed that this era of haze should be blamed to a high concentration of aerosols within the air in a potential atmospheric circulation condition. Based on this regard, United States Environmental Protection Agency, (2019) demonstrate that the primary source of issues of haze should be attributed to human factors more than it can be accounted to natural factors that cause environmental impacts. Due to the economic development and increase in industrial level, the haze has greatly increased in the atmosphere. In recent years the effects of haze in major cities have been seriously devastating. Costa et al., (2014) performed a biological evaluation on the case of haze in Asian countries and found that economic effects of haze in areas with active industrial growth are extremely severe.

Literature Analysis

A literature review by (Vallero, 2014) indicates that seasonal haze cases, as well as related inimical effects, have become a societal crisis across the world. While many emerging epidemiological and experimental research studies have been reported by (Edward, (April 1, 2013) as the plausible health implications of the prevailing toxic contaminants of haze, the current consistency among the documented findings by these pieces of research studies is vaguely understood. In order to tackle that shortage, (Lave & Seskin, 2013) focused on critically discussing the manifestation of psychological and physical health hazards of haze for the current literature in different countries. From the assessment obtained from taxonomic literature study of (Vallero, 2014) eight online databases across different clinical and environmental disciplines was conducted in addition to 30 peer-reviewed studies and concluded that the effects of haze have become so severe that it cannot be overlooked.

The available evidence about the health implications of haze in regard to the field survey, time series analysis, laboratory tests, and modeling by (Bing (April 10,2019) demonstrated that human activities form about 75% of the emission of haze. According to, Maojing, (2018) no abstraction can be assumed on the physical symptoms that have been documented about haze since no particular symptoms highlighted across different study reviews other than feeling discomfort in the throat. Consistent literature reviews show that growth in respiratory morbidity, particularly for asthma, while the elderly and children are reported to be the most susceptible population of haze-related respiratory diseases (World Health Organization, 2019). A consensual summary by (Lave & Seskin, 2013) on the correlation between haze and morbidity of cardiovascular indicated that the condition is unfeasible since the available contents are geographically limited of any cases that have been reported to increase. Various simulations and modeling studies show an increase in respiratory mortality levels because of exposure to seasonal haze concentrations over many years. Furthermore, the available evidence about the risks of cancer is implausible, whereby motor engine and industrial emissions are confirmed to play an integral part in cancer complications more than mere exposure to haze.

By reviewing the research and associated literature reviews concerning haze pollution, it is found that there are two key classes of haze contamination which are major factors influencing the production of haze and studies underlying the release of haze into the environment. In their literature review Nowak eta l., (2014) found that the principal components of haze are particulate matter, nitrogen oxides, and Sulphur dioxide. In the literature review by (Andersen et al., 2015) demonstrate that inhalable particulate matter combines with fog to create haze. Natural factors basically contribute to the causes of haze pollution, while social-economic elements are the main causes of grievous pollution by haze across the world. From the literature analysis of Rylance et al., (2015) reported that haze is believed to be the result of development techniques that are devoid of advanced technological improvements with coal counting as the primary source for the formation of haze. Numerous reviews on the development of high proportion of heavy metal industries indicate that in the industrial sector, huge levels of dust from construction sites, and vehicular emission which is the main mode of transport around the world are the key sources of haze production. More studies by (Lelieveld et al., 2015) have indicated that factors like energy price distortion, environmental regulation, and fiscal decentralization are imperatively associated with haze contamination, while clustering of the industrial mix will sufficiently increase the scope of pollution by haze.

 

Original Argument

Various scales have been developed specifically for studying contamination of air together with the accompanying effects on different receptors. For example, fossil fuel gases are solely a world air pollution problem. Other contaminants, such as particulate matter, can trigger a local episode air pollution issue as a result of emissions coming from a boiler used by a single family. On a regional or global scale, atmospheric transportation and particulate matter can lead to the formation of Arctic haze (Astrobum, Apr 30 2017). Air pollution is studied in different paradigms such as air pollution from indoors caused by construction materials inflows of outdoor pollution, furnishings, and combustion procedures. Furthermore, air pollution can be seen in local air pollution associated with small scale sources of polluting air that adds to existing urban or regional air degradation sources such as boilers meant to serve a single family in the surrounding neighborhood.

Urban air pollution is a global environmental concern that is afflicting millions of lives. Although there exist some worst performers, significant progress has been realized across many countries of the developed world in the past decades. Urman et al., (2014) asserts that urban air pollution is taken as a geographical scale of contamination of air studies because of the accumulation of adverse effects emerging from the high-density population as well as representing a complex mixture of sources of air pollution which calls for a customized action needed in order to execute environmentally friendly change.

Regional air pollution is facilitated by mechanisms that enable transportation of atmospheric substances and different dispersions elements which may influence receptors thousands of miles away from the source causing pollution. The pollution of air plumes basically emerges from sources that are stationary or from sources that are considered to be agglomerated, such as urban locations (Lave & Seskin, 2013). Global air pollution, which is prompted by consistent pollutants having a duration needed in order for them to decompose, for example, persistent organic pollutants of fossil fuel combustion gases pose dangerous health effects. Moreover, global air pollution includes episodes such as arctic haze as well as atmospheric clouds that are usually brown in color, which leads to adverse environmental problems.

The existing boundaries between the different scales of air pollution do not represent the multi-layer, or they are not strict to the complex problem surrounding the topic of air pollution. Urman et al., (2014) argue that the measures put in place to fight local air pollution may not be effective and adequate to avoid the negative impacts associated with air pollution to occur. For example, even if the precursors of ozone layers are minimized in Europe, as a technique to reduce the concentration of ground-level ozone will be problematic because of other emerging issues that contribute to air pollution in the northern hemisphere.

Since multiple scales of air pollution are responsible for air pollution, avoiding pollution of air caused by numerous effects due to the improvement of efficiency of energy mechanisms that are spread at different scales. For some energy use efficiency measures, they can bring benefits of a larger scope to the end user, for example, measures that cause minimized exposure as well as related impacts local air pollution or significant pollution coming from indoors. However, in many of the scenarios of avoiding air pollution, the benefit may be enjoyed across the society more often depending on the amount and location of emission, means of transport available and meteorological conditions put in place to safeguard the environment. According to Rylance et al., (2015) the effects of avoiding air pollution turn out to be beneficial to most societies, but the measures put in place to fight air pollution are not enforced, and therefore, they fail along the way.

Societal understanding is the most common among the studies evaluating the impacts of avoided air pollution of energy efficiency techniques. According to Costa et al., (2014) alterations in the quality of air can be contributed by utilizing energy efficiency methods more so when implemented on a large-scale setting. However, their gaps in the techniques used in assessing the avoided air pollution measures since the approaches are evaluated based on the end user perspective. The contrary between societal and end-user understanding comes in the sense of modal shift studies, whereby the effects of polluting air are determined for both the people who choose to alter the means of transportation which brings a positive environmental change to the entire society. In such studies, the overall society is believed to be a recipient of change through avoided air pollution effects as a result of modal shift; however, the end user, the society members who decide to use a different means of transportation receives severe impacts of respiratory complications. Another gap that fails the avoided pollution approaches is the lack of sufficient budget to finance the methods of protecting the environment.

 

 

 

References

 

Andersen, Z. J., De Nazelle, A., Mendez, M. A., Garcia-Aymerich, J., Hertel, O., Tjønneland, A., … & Nieuwenhuijsen, M. J. (2015). A study of the combined effects of physical activity and air pollution on mortality in elderly urban residents: the Danish Diet, Cancer, and Health Cohort. Environmental health perspectives123(6), 557-563.

Astrobum, (2017 Apr 30). The World In 2050 The Real Future of Earth – Full BBC Documentary 2018.

. Retrieved from https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=XeEYaX82jSE

Bing Li. (April 10,2019). Causes of Urban Air Pollution and Countermeasures. Retrieved from mailto:http://kns.cnki.net/KCMS/detail/41.1286.TU.20190410.1509.362.html

Costa, L. G., Cole, T. B., Coburn, J., Chang, Y. C., Dao, K., & Roque, P. (2014). Neurotoxicants are in the air: convergence of human, animal, and in vitro studies on the effects of air pollution on the brain. BioMed research international2014.

Edward Wong. (April 1, 2013).Air Pollution Linked to 1.2 Million Premature Deaths in              China.Retrieved from https://www.nytimes.com/2013/04/02/world/asia/air-pollution-                linked-to-1-2-million-deaths-in-china.html

Fang, D., Wang, Q. G., Li, H., Yu, Y., Lu, Y., & Qian, X. (2016). Mortality effects assessment of ambient PM2. 5 pollution in the 74 leading cities of China. Science of The Total Environment569, 1545-1552.

Lave, L. B., & Seskin, E. P. (2013). Air pollution and human health. RFF Press.

Lelieveld, J., Evans, J. S., Fnais, M., Giannadaki, D., & Pozzer, A. (2015). The contribution of outdoor air pollution sources to premature mortality on a global scale. Nature525(7569), 367.

Maojing Li.Discussion on the Causes and Countermeasures of Urban Air Pollution.Retrieved from mailto:http://kns.cnki.net/KCMS/detail/detail.aspx?dbcode=CJFQ&dbname=CJFDTEMP&filename=SDGJ201908052&v=MDY0OTVBWm9SOGVYMUx1eFlTN0RoMVQzcVRyV00xRnJDVVJMT2ZZK2R0RnlIa1ZyN0tOaW5NWkxHNEg5ak1wNDk=

Nowak, D. J., Hirabayashi, S., Bodine, A., & Greenfield, E. (2014). Tree and forest effects on air quality and human health in the United States. Environmental pollution193, 119-129.

Rylance, J., Fullerton, D. G., Scriven, J., Aljurayyan, A. N., Mzinza, D., Barrett, S., … & Knott, A. (2015). Household air pollution causes dose-dependent inflammation and altered phagocytosis in human macrophages. American journal of respiratory cell and molecular biology52(5), 584-593.

United States Environmental Protection Agency, (2019). Federal Agencies and Organizations Addressing Environmental Asthma: U.S. Department of Housing and Urban Development (HUD). Retrieved from https://www.epa.gov/asthma/federal-agencies-and-organizations-addressing-environmental-asthma

Urman, R., McConnell, R., Islam, T., Avol, E. L., Lurmann, F. W., Vora, H., … & Gauderman, W. J. (2014). Associations of children’s lung function with ambient air pollution: joint effects of regional and near-roadway pollutants. Thorax69(6), 540-547.

Vallero, D. A. (2014). Fundamentals of air pollution. Academic press.

World Health Organization (2019). Public health, environmental and social determinants of health (PHE): Ambient and household air pollution and health. Retrieved from https://www.who.int/phe/health_topics/outdoorair/databases/public_health_policy/en/index1.html

World Health Organization(2014)7 million premature deaths annually linked to air pollution.Retrieved from mailto: https://www.who.int/mediacentre/news/releases/2014/air-pollution/en

 

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