Read Ch-4 and will start reviewing about Migration( Ch-5) but wrap upcomplete Ch-5 next week.
Review PPT lectures
Email me if any questions.
Medical Geography and GIS
Health and Geography?
Links and Books on Health and Geography
Human Ecology of Diseases
Major Diseases: AIDS/HIV
Global Health care
Applications of GIS in Health
Role of GIS in Health industry
Books and Geo Spatial links in Medical Geography http://www.wiley.com/WileyCDA/WileyTitle/productCd-1405170034.html
Medical Geography The application of geographic ideas, information, and theories to
the study of disease, health, and health care.
Also called Health Geography
How can health and geography be related??
Health and Geography Approaches:
• Human-Environment relationships Poor environments can negatively affect health
Pollution and other human-made problems
• Culture Religious or other cultural attitudes/practices can affect how diseases or other
ailments are dealt with
• Movement Diffusion of diseases
Human Ecology of Disease
• Human Ecology: • the interconnections
between human populations and the physical world
• Triangle of Human Ecology: • Population
Insults and Stimuli on Health Chemical Insults:
• Drugs, exposure to chemicals or gases
Physical Insults: • Trauma from accidents, radiation, shock
Psychosocial Insults: • Crowding, anxiety, love, sense of belonging
Infectious Stimuli: • Viruses, bacteria, protozoa
Understanding the concepts Endemic:
• A disease that’s always present in a population
Epidemic • A disease that occurs in larger #s than normal
Pandemic • A worldwide epidemic
Acquired immune deficiency syndrome or acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) is a disease of the human immune system caused by the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV).This condition progressively reduces the effectiveness of the immune system and leaves individuals susceptible to opportunistic infections and tumors.
Disease and its scale
Epidemic: Occurs when there is a sudden and severe local or regional outbreak( Cholera outbreak in refugee camps etc)
Pandemic: Occurs when a disease spreads world wide( AIDS is a global Pandemic)
Rise of HIV/AIDS?? Issues: AIDS
Role of World Bank and other More developed countries… http://www.gapminder.org/world/#$majorMode=chart$is;shi=t;ly=2003;lb=f;il=t;fs=11;al=30;stl=t;st=t
;nsl=t;se=t$wst;tts=C$ts;sp=5.59290322580644;ti=2011$zpv;v=0$inc_x;mmid=XCOORDS;iid=pyj6tScZq mEfbZyl0qjbiRQ;by=ind$inc_y;mmid=YCOORDS;iid=pyj6tScZqmEe1GaiYJX2qGA;by=ind$inc_s;uniVa lue=8.21;iid=phAwcNAVuyj0XOoBL_n5tAQ;by=ind$inc_c;uniValue=255;gid=CATID0;by=grp$map_x; scale=log;dataMin=0.0095;dataMax=27$map_y;scale=lin;dataMin=10;dataMax=5600000$map_s;s ma=50;smi=2$cd;bd=0$inds=
WAYS PEOPLE BECOME INFECTED WITH HIV –AIDS..
by having sexual intercourse with an infected partner
by injecting drugs using a needle or syringe which has already been used by someone who is infected.
by blood transfusions (it is a lower risk than in the past, but still a risk)
What can be done about AIDS in SSA?
Awareness and acceptance of the problem
Political will Lowering of cost of drugs Success in lower rates in
Uganda and Kenya
A continent in Peril….
AIDS IN AFRICA http://www.avert.org/africa-hiv-aids-statistics.htm
Diffusion of AIDS…..
Heterosexual transmission of HIV dominates Urban areas Commercial sex Sexually transmitted diseases, condom use neglect Cultural context : men don’t use condoms Women reluctant to insist on condoms Rural areas: More silent Lack of adequate medical facilities, poverty,
insecurity, gender inequality, migration, war and civil conflict
Diffusion of AIDS Commercial Sex is widespread(Cote d Ivorie)
Female sex workers are HIV positive
Economic needs compels women to provide sexual favors
Blood transfusion, Long distance truck drivers-sex-local women
Highway of Death: Malawi-Durban in S Africa(92% of truck drivers were HIV positive)
How AIDS impact the regions??? Decline in Life expectancy
(Swaziland: 39 yrs for females and 36 yrs for males)
Lack of working population/workforce
Orphans/lack of parents
Coping with AIDS Developed world: Antiretroviral drugs are delaying the development
of full blown AIDS
Extending the lives of people living with AIDS
Preventing vertical transmission from mother to new born
AFRICAN Countries: THESE MEDICINES ARE ONLY A DREAM… expensive beyond HOPE!!
Generic Versions of Drug are Underway
Uganda and Zambia: Reversing the AID
Effective prevention measures
Access to condoms
Treatment of opportunistic infections
Sexually transmitted diseases
Sex education at school
Support for pregnant women
Efforts to prevent mother –child infection
How Geographic Information Systems can be used and is used in Health Applications
GIS and Health Applications
John Snow and Cholera case
How Can GIS be used in Public Health?
Health Industries and Administration
GIS and Health applications-egs
Websites using GIS for Health
GIS and Health???
How can GIS be used for Health/What are the applications where GIS can be used in Health?
What are the methods/techniques which can be used to understand health?
What were the various applications where GIS has been used in the readings ?
“Can Geographic Information Keep You Healthy?” Davenhall suggested that a patient’s geographic (or place) history is as relevant to personal health as genetics and lifestyle. One reason for including geography is that where you live can expose you to environmental toxins.
Famous Health Map! http://www.ph.ucla.edu/epi/snow.html
Snow, J. (1949) Snow on Cholera. Oxford University Press: London.
In and around Louisville, Kentucky, industries produce multiple contaminants (Arc News ,Spring 2010)
Heart attack risks for U.S. Medicare enrollees shown here in the contiguous United States, mapped by county. (Data source: Dartmouth Atlas of Health Care.)
Poverty and BMI (Body mass index)
BMI ! 18.5 – 24.9
25.0 – 29.9 30.0+
Percentage in Poverty 0 – 12.5%
12.51% – 19.99%
20.0% – 39.99%
40.0% – 70.10%
Data Sources: BRFSS data, 2000;City of Pgh City Planning Dept., U.S. Census 2000
Pittsburgh, PA: Neighborhood proportion under poverty and average BMI per neighborhood
How can GIS be used in Public Health?
Determining geographic distribution of diseases
Analyzing spatial and temporal trends Mapping populations at risk Stratifying risk factors Assessing resource allocation Planning and targeting interventions Monitoring diseases and interventions
over time Ref: http://www.who.int/health_mapping/gisandphm/en/index.html
Health Industries Public Health
Health and Hospital Administration
Public Health Organizations use GIS to map data, facilitating assessments on a
variety of issues including: Diseases and epidemics
Air and water quality, sanitary conditions of food handlers
Vital events such as births, deaths and immunizations
Readiness to respond to natural and man-made disasters
Health Care Administration
Health care is in part controlled by geographic location Benefits:
Identifies new markets
Analyzes current or projected patient population locations and needs
Conducts market studies and documents health care needs for a community
Maps information about health care providers: hospital and clinic locations, physicians, and ancillaries
Health Care Administration •American College of Health Care Executives
World Aids Rates
U.S. Cancer Mortality Rates
https://www.nytimes.com/2017/04/21/ opinion/sunday/go-east-young- american.html?_r=0
What is Migration?
Is the permanent relocation of both place of residence and activity.
Go East! Young Americans!
Needed but not wanted Economic migrants are seen as a threat to jobs and the welfare state. The reality is more complex!
Immigration is a boon for Britain. The 9m-odd foreign-born people living there bring with them skills and attitudes that make the country more productive. Younger and better educated than natives, immigrants pay more in tax than they use in the way of public services. For some institutions they are indispensable: perhaps 30% of doctors in Britain are non British
http://www.pewresearch.org/fact- tank/2016/08/03/nearly-1-in-100-worldwide-are-now- displaced-from-their-homes
Push and Pull
Types of Migration
Sun and Snow Belt
Laws of Migration_Ravensteins
What is Migration?
Is the permanent relocation of both place of residence and activity.
What is Spatial Interaction??
Used by geographers to study the interdependence between geographic areas.
It can be movement of people, between places, flow of goods, diffusion of ideas, and spread of diseases.
It is a function of the size of the interdependent population and the distance between them.
Push Factors loss of job, lack of professional opportunity, overcrowding and slum clearance
Pull Factors safety and food, job opportunity, better climate, lower taxes, more room
Life cycle change induces MOVE!!
http://www.economist.com/news/special- report/21699307-migrant-crisis-europe-last-year-was- only-one-part-worldwide-problem-rich
Migration Mapping (Flow mapper)
Incentives to migrate
Types of Migration Recurrent
Repeats on a regular basis, commuting
Crossing of an international border
Non recurrent Residential mobility (local moves)
Migration (between metropolitan areas or between states, nations)
Ethnic Distribution in Los Angeles
Migration within South Asia
Rural-Urban Migration Dominates in Developing World
Why people migrate to foreign countries??
Current Migration Routes76
Some Risk Takers (Source: The Economist)
Trend of Immigrants:1881-1960
Trend of Immigrants to USA:1961-1999
SUN BELT? Johnston (2000) defines Sun Belt and Snow Belt as the two regions which refers to the growing and declining regions in the US economy. Greene et al. (2006) defines Sun Belt cities as the fastest growing cities and are located below the 37th parallel. The country’s Snow Belt region refers to the the older industrial districts especially in the North East; and Western and the Southern part are often called as the Sun Belt.
The Great Plains Drain
What growth in Sun Belt?
Southward and westward movement of people Fast growing cities Hot and humid Defense and other federal spending Boom in high-tech industries Growing affluence Moderate price air conditioner after WWII. Higher availability of jobs and competitive wages Sun rise industries (Home of Silicon valley, Hollywood,
Mean Center Moving towards Sun Belt??
E.G. Ravenstein’s Laws of Migration
• Most migrants move only a short distance
• Longer distance migration favors big city destination
• Most migration proceeds step by step
• Most migration is rural to urban
• Each migration flow produces a counter flow
• Most migrants are adults
• Most international migrants are males
Distance Decay: The declining intensity of an activity with increasing distance from its point of origin.
Outlier: Point on a scatter diagram that lies far off the trend line.
Outliers on the graph correspond to cases that are poorly predicted by the model. Outliers are not to be confused with extreme values,
which may lie far from any other point but which are still close to the best-fitting line.
Gravity Model (Jones,1990 and Zipf,1949).
A model to predict spatial interaction, where size (population) is directly related to interaction and distance is inversely related to interaction.
Gravity Model Formulation
M: number of migrants flowing between i and j
P: refers to population and d is the distance
ijjiij dPPkM /=
We will wrap up Migration now next week….Complete reading ch-5
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