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socialization is the life long process of learning. Socialization is vital to the functioning of an individual, for society is continuously changing, requiring constant adaptation. For example, an individual who grew up in 1970s would function poorly if they did not adapt by learning about and using modern technology.

Things learned through socialization:

Norms: norms are learned early on in childhood which include the folkways and mores of a society.

Internalization: the process by which one adopts the values of society.

Social roles: the learning of how to act, think, and feel in a social role.

Types of socialization:

Deliberate socialization- takes place when you have an intent to socialize someone in a certain way. For example, when a parent lectures a child on the virtue of honesty.

Unconscious socialization- is when socialization takes place but the intent is not necessarily there. For example, after the parent lectures on honesty, is observed lying the next day.

Agents of socialization:

Family: has first access to the youngsters before formal schooling, therefore the have a strong early influence on norms, morals, and roles.

School: emphasis the importance of being on time.
teaches how to be docile
authority should be respected
learn how to follow directions
instills value that if you work hard enough you can accomplish anything

Peer group: begins to have a powerful influence of socialization around the time of adolescence, when family influence weakens to establish a separate identity

Mass media: consisting of print, radio, internet, and tv. A powerful tool to socializing people into such ideologies as sexism, ageism, and racism.


Reverse socialization: when the young teach the old. For example, a child teaching a grandparent to use a computer.


Resocialization: profound and relatively rapid change in an adult’s attitudes, thoughts, and behaviors. It often involves being in a total institution where there is complete control over the input received by an individual.


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