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Epidemiological Study Assignment | Homework For You

PART I, ONE PAGE 1.  Describe and critique an epidemiological study regarding population based risk assessment or risk reduction related to either an acute infectious disease, OR chronic disease, OR related to a safety concern (patient falls, for example).  Give a brief synopsis of the study, describe the challenges in assessing risks in the target population reliably; what measures of risk or risk reduction were used, if applicable, and the risk reduction or risk avoidance recommendations made by the investigators. Please post the brief overview using a phrase indicating the topic on the subject line, and of course, indicating the citation for the research study.

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2.  See the sample problems posted (in the week 5 module) for determining basic epidemiological rates–incidence and  prevalence, relative risk and odds ratio, sensitivity and specificity.    Practice the problems, see the key provided, and comment on any difficulty you encountered, and if working through the problem helped you better understand the concepts—

Part II; ONE PAGE, ANSWER THE QUESTIONS AND SUMMARIZE IT. Basic epidemiological rates’ and interpretation. Please show your calculations, and reasoning if applicable, and answer the questions below.

1. Anytown, USA is a community of 50,000 persons, ranging in age from 3 months to 89 years, 51% female and 49% males. There were 500 deaths in 2008. The following was reported January 1, 2009: Disease Number of Cases Diabetes 2,000 Cardiovascular 1,000 Colon cancer 300 Breast cancer 200 Prostate cancer 150 Lung cancer 50 Tuberculosis 50 During the year 2009, 100 new cases of diabetes, 10 new cases of TB were diagnosed, and 5 new cases of breast cancer were diagnosed. There were 700 deaths in 2009.

a. What is the prevalence of TB in the community as of Dec 31, 2009?

b. What was the incidence of breast cancer in 2009?

c. If, of the 500 deaths in 2008, 89 were r/t Cardiovascular disease; what is the CV disease specific mortality?

d. What was the prevalence of diabetes for 2009?

Calculate the % change in diabetes in Anytown for 2009. What do the data mean? What is your interpretation of these data in terms of the town’s overall health? How could results be compared to national incidence/prevalence for two of the commonly occurring chronic illnesses affecting the population in Anytown? What should this mean in terms of providing interventions—what would be an example of primary, secondary, tertiary intervention for Anytown?

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2. There was great concern in 2011 with increasing lung cancer deaths in Somewhere, USA, a city of 150,000 located in an urban sprawl area. The town council considered limiting smoking in public places and cracking down on sales in convenience stores. PH professionals argued that the relative risk of developing lung cancer is higher if a person is a smoker. Of 300 persons diagnosed with lung cancer in 2010, 200 were smokers. What is the relative risk of being diagnosed with lung cancer in Somewhere for individuals who are smokers?

3. Consider a class with 100 enrolled students. No one was ill at the beginning of the term, but by September 30, 5 students reported gastroenteritis, and all were still ill on October 1, but recovered by October 4. On October 14, 3 more students developed gastroenteritis, and all were recovered by October 19. For the purposes of this problem, assume that a person cannot get gastroenteritis more than once. a. Calculate the prevalence of gastroenteritis in the class on October 1. b. Calculate the prevalence of gastroenteritis in the class on October 30.

4. A case control study was conducted among men in the US to determine whether the use of hormones during the mother’s pregnancy influenced the son’s risk of developing testicular cancer later in life. Investigators selected 500 cases who were hospitalized for testicular cancer, and 1000 controls. The findings were that 90 cases’ mothers, and 50 controls’ mothers had used hormones during pregnancy.

a. Calculate the odds ratio. What is your interpretation of the odds ratio?

b. The researchers report that there is a 95% confidence interval of 0.8 – 5.5. What does this mean in terms of the precision of the results? What is the usefulness of a confidence interval in the reporting of results? Get Biology homework help today

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