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Give   a basic definition of biodiversity.



Which of the following accurately reflects   the connection between science, decision-making, and environmental science?   a. Science and environmental science rely on evidence; good decision-making   only sometimes relies on evidence.

b. Science and good decision-making rely on evidence; environmental   science does not always rely on evidence.

c. Science relies on good decision-making and environmental science   relies on evidence.

d. Science and good decision-making relies on evidence; environmental   science relies on good decision-making.

e. Science and good decision-making rely on evidence; environmental   science relies on evidence.



Compare   the life history strategy of a deer mouse with that of a bear, and identify   each as either an r- or K-selected species.




Why are tertiary information sources considered less reliable than   primary and secondary sources? What is   a primary source?



What   is an environmental footprint? How is   this used to measure sustainability?

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Scientists have studied the impact of clear cutting forests on   erosion and waterways. They know that clear cutting will cause erosion and   waterways will suffer the impact of sediment loading. Evaluate the situation   and choose the statement that best explains how humans may perceive the risks   involved.

a. Since the chance of disaster   is low humans will not have biases about this situation.

b. Although the seriousness of   the impact is well known people’s judgment may still vary dramatically.

c. All people understand this   situation and will work together on a solution. d. Both a and c

e.   None of the above



Why are some people more vulnerable to toxic   substances than other people, even if exposed to the same dose?



Explain how a composting toilet works. Use a   diagram to explain the cycling of water and organic matter.



Distinguish   between chronic and acute effects cuased by exposure to toxic substances.



List THREE abiotic   parameters and THREE biotic parameters: ABIOTIC










Which of the following best describes ecosystem capital? a. mineral   and living resources of the earth.

b. living organisms and other   renewable resources of the earth.

c. natural resources such as   forests and fisheries.

d. natural resources (goods) and   services provided by ecosystems

e. ecosystem services that support life on earth



Refer to the figure below to determine which country has the   lowest population size but the highest density?

a. Asia

b. South Africa

c. Eastern Europe

d. Western Europe

e. Oceania



List three of the things   you might measure to determine your ecological footprint?






Which of the following statements about biodiversity is false?

a. Ecosystem diversity is essential for evolution and natural   selection.

b. Keystone species greatly influence the abundance and distribution   of other species.

c. Genetic variation may provide the means to develop resistance to   disease.

d. Species evenness is the degree to which species have   representation in a habitat.

e. Biodiversity refers to the variety of life on Earth.



Gray wolves once roamed the western portions of North America from   Alaska to Mexico. Gray wolves prey on bison, deer, elk, and moose. These prey   had been depleted by hunting by settlers. Ranches and farms were built near   gray wolf habitat.

The wolves thus began to prey on livestock. When the federal   government set aside the Greater Yellowstone Ecosystem

(GYE)   as a national park in 1872, about 300–400 wolves were present, preying mostly   on elk and bison (Yellowstone Association 1996). Fearing the wolves’ impact   on elk and bison herds as well as livestock owned by area ranchers, the   federal government began eradicating the wolf population. Bounty programs   that continued until 1965 offered as much as $50 per wolf. By the 1930s,   wolves had been effectively eliminated from the 48 contiguous states and   Mexico and remained in high numbers only in Alaska. The elk population then   grew. Elk grazed on plants and soon plant populations declined. Plants such   as willow trees and aspen were negatively affected. Song birds depended on   the trees for habitat, river banks remain stable because of the trees, but   now the trees were not producing saplings (young trees). Which of the   following is the best conclusion to make based on this situation?


a. Keystone species are crucial   to the long-term sustainability of the ecosystems they inhabit.

b. Keystone species can   sometimes cause more harm than good and humans need to step in to solve the   problem.

c. Keystone species greatly   influence the abundance and distribution of other species. d. Both a and c

e.   All of the above



In human populations, crude birth and death rates enable one to   compare a. the natural increase or decrease of different populations.

b. relative rates of immigration   and emigration.

c. the proportions of fertile   women of different populations.

d. the causes of deaths of a   population.

e. age profiles of different populations.



Four types of benefits that biodiversity   provides for humans would be a. direct use, indirect use, options, and   keystone value.

b. deductive reasoning, inductive reasoning, options, and existence   value.

c. direct use, indirect use, options, and existence value.

d. deductive, inductive, direct, and indirect uses.

e. direct use, indirect use, organism use, and existence value.



What is doubling time? What   would be the doubling time for a population whose annual growth rate is   5%? Show your calculations.



Humans depend on biodiversity in many ways. Which of the following   is considered to be an “option value”? a. The future discovery of a cure for   cancer

b. Having clean air and drinkable water

c. Breeding strains of crops resistant to drought

d. The opportunity to experience the beauty of the natural world

e. Mangroves providing a natural buffer from hurricane-force winds   and floods



Explain   why habitat fragmentation may be just as serious a threat to a species   survival as total habitat destruction.



Which of the following   describes a biotic community?

a. all the plants, animals, and   microbes in a geographic area.

b. all the plants and animals in   a geographic area.

c. all the species of trees in a   forest.

d. all the trees and other   plants in a forest.

e. abiotic factors in a geographic area.



A   grouping of plants, animals, and other organisms interacting with each other   and their environment in such a way as to perpetuate the grouping more or   less indefinitely is called a/an a. ecosystem.

b. abiotic community.

c. population.

d. ecotone.

e. species




All of the following would contribute to declines in fertility   rates EXCEPT: a. availability of social programs to care for   the elderly.

b. low rates of infant   mortality.

c. mandatory childhood   education.

d. opportunities for higher   education.

e. use of children in farm work



Where   is most of the fresh water on the Earth’s surface? Where does your fresh water come from in   Miami-Dade County?



Abiotic   means a. toxic.

b. antibiotic.

c. nonliving.

d. desert.

e. microscopic.



The   process that photo-autotrophic producers perform that is not performed by   other organisms in most ecosystems is a. chemosynthesis.

b. metabolism.

c. photosynthesis.

d. cell respiration.

e. reproduction.



In most ecosystems, the producers are the a. green   plants.

b. fungi.

c. animals.

d. humans.

e. bacteria



The complete loss of all individuals of a   species is defined as a. extinction.

b. biodiversity.

c. hot spots.

d. aesthetics.

e. existence value.



Which of the following have removed limits to human population   growth? a. Medical practices

b. Agriculture

c. Sanitation methods

d. Both a and c

e. All of the above



Select   the best conclusion based on the data in the chart below.






Medical advances

Disease incidence or severity lessened

Humans live longer


Agricultural advances

Excess food is now grown

Humans have more food available


Waste management and sewage system advances

Less water pollution

Humans have access to safer water and fewer diseases

a. Human populations worldwide are healthy and have plenty of food   and clean water.

b. The effects of limiting factors that might stabilize populations   have been reduced.

c. There is now more healthy food than ever before so larger human   populations can be supported.

d. Advances lead to more resource consumption but human population   growth does not negatively affect the environment.

e. Agricultural advances have led to more nutrition so that the world   no longer has humans facing starvation.



The maximum number of individuals an ecosystem can support is   referred to as a. its carrying capacity.

b. density dependence.

c. its ecological footprint.

d. immigration.

e. emigration.



Draw a simple diagram for an group of 8th graders to   explain the Carbon cycle – Explain where the “extra” carbon is coming from in   the increase of CO2 in the Earth’s atmosphere.



What is the major limiting factor for humans? a. Immigration

b. Disease

c. Lack of adequate food supply

d. Lack of clean water

e. Natural disasters



The movement of individuals into a population is called a.   emigration.

b. maximizing the carrying capacity.

c. population density.

d. the limiting factor.

e. immigration.



Which   of the following correctly describes I = P × A × T?

a. Population size, standard of living, and technology impact the   environment.

b. Population size, standard of living, and technology have no impact   on the environment.

c. Population size is impacted by the standard of living, technology,   and the environment.

d. Standard of living and technology impact the population size.

e. Standard of living, technology, and the impact they have on the   environment determine population size.



In   nature an oxygen free environment is termed a. aerobic.

b. anaerobic.

c. biotic.

d. complete.

e. organic.



A population with stable size is one in which a. death   rate is less than birth rate.

b. death rate is the same as   birth rate on the average.

c. death rate exceeds birth   rate.

d. birth rate equals   recruitment.

e. there are no deaths.



Explain how “Biotic potential” and “environmental resistance”   regulate animal populations in ecosystems. How do these terms apply to human population growth?



How   could it be possible that we are already living beyond the long-term carrying   capacity of Earth?



An increase in the   population of an herbivore is generally

a. preceded by an increase in   population of its natural enemies.

b. paralleled by an increase in   populations of its natural enemies.

c. followed by an increase in   populations of its natural enemies.

d. independent of populations of   its natural enemies.

e. dependent on an increase of its natural enemies.



A condition that would most likely result in the S-shaped   population growth curve is the a. introduction of a foreign species.

b. elimination of a   predator.

c. alteration of the   habitat.

d. removal or reduction of   competing species.

e. a stable abiotic and biotic environment.



The   IPAT equation is used to

a. mathematically figure out the exact impact humans have on the   environment.

b. determine how to limit population size.

c. provide a useful way to think about human population growth and   its consequences.

d. compute how immigration and emigration affect population size.

e. gather mathematical data to help governments make policies about   population sizes.



A species that has an essential role in maintaining ecosystem   structure is called a: a. keystone species.

b. critical species.

c. endangered species.

d. predator.

e. threatened species.



Human population growth before the 1900s was limited by all of the   following EXCEPT a. primitive medical   technology.

b. birth control   technology.

c. famines. d. disease.

e.   poor sanitation.



Provide a climate diagram for a Midwest tall grass prairie. Describe the patterns of temperature and   precipitation you would see, and the resulting vegetation.



Provide a climate diagram for a Montane forest in Yellowstone   National Park. Describe the patterns   of temperature and precipitation you would see, and the resulting   vegetation.



What   is ecosystem function, and how can people benefit from ecosystem   function? Give a specific   example.




Describe   the major groups of living organisms on earth based on the SOURCES of Carbon   and SOURCES of Energy used.



Which human activities can increase the   chances of diseases such as malaria, yellow fever, and other diseases carried   by vectors like mosquitos?

a. Changes in livestock management

b. Adding microbes to soil

c. Planting trees to have more carbon sinks

d. Clear-cutting, building roads, and mining in forests

e. Using bacteria to clean up oil spills



Living vegetation and the ocean are known as “carbon   sinks” because a. they are made   of carbon.

b. they create carbon.

c. they destroy carbon.

d. they store carbon.

e. due to gravity, carbon is found closer to the ground.



A condition that would most likely result in the S-shaped   population growth curve is the a.   introduction of a foreign species.

b. elimination of a predator.

c. alteration of the habitat.

d. removal or reduction of competing species.

e. a stable abiotic and biotic environment.



Biotic factors the influence ecosystems include all of following   except: a. Herbivory pressure

b. Predation

c. Competition

d. Altitude

e. Mutualism/ symbiosis



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