Disease Status Assignment | Homework For You

The largest recent death toll from an emergent disease is for HIV/AIDS. Although virtually unknown 35 years ago, acquired immune-deficiency syndrome is estimated to have killed at least 34 million people so far. The WHO estimates that 37 million people are now infected with HIV, but that half of them are unaware of their condition. Because of improved treatment, the number of deaths is declining, to 1.5 million or fewer per year. Although two-thirds of all current HIV infections are now in sub-Saharan Africa, the disease is spreading rapidly in South and East Asia.

Save Time On Research and Writing
Hire a Pro to Write You a 100% Plagiarism-Free Paper.
Get My Paper

However, a greater focus on this disease has brought progress. New infection rates have fallen by 50 percent or more in 25 countries—13 of them in sub-Saharan Africa. Half of all the reductions in HIV infections in the past two years have been among children.

Homework For You

Still, the costs of this disease are terrible. As chapter 7 points out, without AIDS the life expectancy in Swaziland would be about 65 years. With AIDS, the average life expectancy is now only about 33 years. Worldwide more than 14 million children—the equivalent of all children under age five in America—have lost one or both parents to AIDS.

The economic costs of treating patients and lost productivity from premature deaths resulting from this disease are estimated to be at least $35 billion per year, or about one-tenth of the total GDP of sub-Saharan Africa.

Save Time On Research and Writing
Hire a Pro to Write You a 100% Plagiarism-Free Paper.
Get My Paper

Emerging diseases devastate wildlife populations

Humans aren’t the only ones to suffer from new and devastating diseases. Domestic animals and wildlife also experience sudden and widespread epidemics. When new diseases spread among wildlife, they are sometimes called ecological diseases.

Homework For You

A particularly devastating example has been destroying bat populations across North America in the past decade. In 2006, people living near a cave west of Albany, New York, reported something peculiar: Little brown bats (Myotis lucifugus) were flying outside during daylight in the middle of the winter.

Inspection of the cave by the wildlife management officers found numerous dead bats near the cave mouth. Most had white fuzz on their faces and wings, a condition that is now known as white-nose syndrome (WNS). Little brown bats are tiny creatures, about the size of your thumb. They depend on about 2 grams of stored fat to get through the winter. Hibernation is essential to making their energy resources last. Being awakened just once can cost a bat a month’s worth of fat.

The white fuzz has now been identified as filamentous fungus (Geomyces destructans), which thrives in the cool, moist conditions where bats hibernate. We don’t know where the fungus came from, but, true to its name, the pathogen is highly destructive. Occurring in only a few states a decade ago, the disease has now been found in almost every state and province in eastern North America.

Homework For You

Biologists estimate that nearly 6 million bats already have died from this disease. It isn’t known how the pathogen spreads. Perhaps it moves from animal to animal through physical contact. It’s also possible that humans introduce fungal spores on their shoes and clothing when they go from one cave to another.

In some areas, bat populations have fallen by 95 percent or more. So far, seven species of bat are known to be susceptible to this plague, and it has been detected in five additional species. Some researchers fear that bats could be extinct in 20 years in the eastern United States. Losing these important species, which consume insects and pollinate plants, would have devastating ecological consequences.

An even more widespread and lethal epidemic is currently sweeping through amphibians worldwide. A disease called Chytrid fungus (or Chytridiomycosis) is causing dramatic losses or even extinctions of frogs and toads throughout the world (fig. 8.7). A fungus called Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis causes the disease. It was first recognized in 1993 in dead and dying frogs in Queensland, Australia, and now seems to be spreading rapidly, perhaps because the fungus has become more virulent or amphibians are more susceptible due to environmental change.

Most of the world’s approximately 6,000 amphibian species appear to be susceptible to the disease, and around 2,000 species have declined or become extinct in their native habitats as part of this global epidemic. African clawed frogs (Xenopus sp.), which are resistant to fungal infections and thus may be carriers of the disease, are a possible vector for this disease. Widespread use of these frogs for research and pregnancy testing may have contributed to the rapid spread of the pathogen.

Here is more information 

Leishmaniasis, Ebola and Aids Diseases

Certainly, Leishmaniasis disease is caused by protozoan Leishmania parasites mostly found and transmitted by female phlebotomine sandflies. On the other hand, Ebola disease is caused by Ebola virus mostly found in wild animals, and can be transmitted through contact with blood, secretions, organs and body fluids among others.

Homework For You

Lastly, AIDs disease is caused by a virus known as human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). It is transmitted through exchange of body fluids with an infected person such as breast milk, blood, vaginal secretions and semen.


Current Distribution and Prevalence of the Diseases

Based on 2015, statistics, at most 1million cases of Leishmaniasis disease which are new took place per year worldwide, which came along with at most 30,000 deaths annually. Furthermore, current state of Ebola disease has been diminishing within West Africa where the outbreak took place between years 2014-2016. In 24th July 2018,  one of the most affected region, Democratic Republic of Congo, officially ended the ninth outbreak of the disease. Lastly, since 2017, the widespread of AIDS has been increasing with 1.8 million new cases being reported that year.

Environmental And Social Factors Causes Of The Diseases

Environmental factor which contribute to Leishmaniasis disease transmission include living in rural areas with temperatures ranging 15-38 °C and with humidity of at least 70% . Social factors include interaction with animals mostly cattle and flies, which mostly takes place in agricultural areas. Furthermore, Environmental factor that leads to transmission of Ebola virus include forests and wildlife areas inhabited by wild animals. Social factors that lead to the spread of the disease include interaction with wild animals and infected people:

mostly through sexual contact. Lastly, Environmental factor that leads to spread of AIDs include areas with high rate of social evils such as prostitution and rape. Social factors include having sexual interaction with infected people without any means of protection such in prostitution and raping.

Treatment of the Diseases

Treatment of Leishmaniasis disease is based on several factors such as the type of the disease, geographical area and the parasite species. Mostly the disease is treated through immunocompetent system since medicines cannot fully get rid of the parasite responsible. Contrarily, there is no scientific confirmed treatment of Ebola disease.

Homework For You

However, certain measures have always been kept into consideration to improve survival such as care-rehydration with oral fluids and specific syndromes treatment. Lastly, AIDs cannot be treated but its virus can only be suppressed through particular medical measures such as intake of ARV drugs. The drugs control replication of the virus in human body, which allows the body immune system.Get Environmental science homework help today

Calculate the price
Make an order in advance and get the best price
Pages (550 words)
*Price with a welcome 15% discount applied.
Pro tip: If you want to save more money and pay the lowest price, you need to set a more extended deadline.
We know how difficult it is to be a student these days. That's why our prices are one of the most affordable on the market, and there are no hidden fees.

Instead, we offer bonuses, discounts, and free services to make your experience outstanding.
How it works
Receive a 100% original paper that will pass Turnitin from a top essay writing service
step 1
Upload your instructions
Fill out the order form and provide paper details. You can even attach screenshots or add additional instructions later. If something is not clear or missing, the writer will contact you for clarification.
Pro service tips
How to get the most out of your experience with Homework Writing Services
One writer throughout the entire course
If you like the writer, you can hire them again. Just copy & paste their ID on the order form ("Preferred Writer's ID" field). This way, your vocabulary will be uniform, and the writer will be aware of your needs.
The same paper from different writers
You can order essay or any other work from two different writers to choose the best one or give another version to a friend. This can be done through the add-on "Same paper from another writer."
Copy of sources used by the writer
Our college essay writers work with ScienceDirect and other databases. They can send you articles or materials used in PDF or through screenshots. Just tick the "Copy of sources" field on the order form.
See why 20k+ students have chosen us as their sole writing assistance provider
Check out the latest reviews and opinions submitted by real customers worldwide and make an informed decision.
Computer science
I proofread the filled template. It was very helpful to understand what mistakes I had done in my first-week assignment. I learned about the topics.
Customer 462947, May 7th, 2022
Well researched
Customer 463377, May 15th, 2023
Marketing & Advertising
Nice article. I've also learnt alot.
Customer 453915, September 21st, 2022
Great job in such a short time. Thank you.
Customer 462927, May 4th, 2022
Job well done!!!
Customer 453939, February 24th, 2020
Awesome job, thanks for the quality work!!!
Customer 453939, February 15th, 2020
project management
thank you
Customer 462327, November 16th, 2022
Business and administrative studies
Always cite all resources used. (including videos)
Customer 459305, April 29th, 2022
Classic English Literature
Impeccable analysis.
Customer 462731, April 18th, 2022
The instructions were followed but, there are a few mistakes you should correct
Customer 452441, March 25th, 2022
Accounting & Finance
good work
Customer 452441, April 12th, 2022
good job
Customer 452741, March 27th, 2020
Customer reviews in total
Current satisfaction rate
3 pages
Average paper length
Customers referred by a friend
15% OFF your first order
Use a coupon FIRST15 and enjoy expert help with any task at the most affordable price.
Claim my 15% OFF Order in Chat