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There are 4 peer responses needed and the instructions and posts are included below:

Guided Response: Review several of your classmates’ posts. Provide a substantive response (a minimum of 100 words) to at least two of your peers by comparing and/or contrasting your selected three groups to theirs. What similarities or differences do you notice? How did your classmates justify their responses?


Vulnerability varies among people, some are more sensitive to it than others. When looking into various vulnerabilities I found that they can overlap, often vulnerable people are sensitive to risks that originate from economic, physical, social, biological, and genetic factors along with their lifestyle behaviors. Each of these factors plays an important role in vulnerabilities.

After an analysis of statistical data and trends related to different populations, I found that vulnerable mothers and children, abused individuals, and people affected by alcohol and substance abuse overlap in many ways. When considering data it is important to remember “It is difficult to get definitive data on any given population. Variations in how studies are conducted, the communities in which they are conducted, and the type of respondents all contribute to incomplete and inaccurate data compilation.”( Burkholder, D. M., & Nash, N. B. (2013). ). Vulnerable children can be affected by abuse ”Child maltreatment has enormous immediate and long-term repercussions. Beyond death, physical injury and disability, violence can lead to stress that impairs brain development and damages the nervous and immune systems.” (WHO). Many times child abuse can be linked to poverty and the stress of caring for children. Alcohol abuse can also be a cause of abuse of children, spouses or other people in our lives. Substance and alcohol abuse can also lead to health issues as well per the World health organization “Alcohol is a toxic and psychoactive substance with dependence producing propensities. Alcohol consumption contributes to 3 million deaths each year globally as well as to the disabilities and poor health of millions of people. Overall, the harmful use of alcohol is responsible for 5.1% of the global burden of disease” (WHO).


Burkholder, D. M., & Nash, N. B. (2013). Special populations in health care [Electronic version]. Retrieved from https://content.ashford.edu/ (Links to an external site.)

World Health Organization. Retrieved from https://www.who.int/


There are many factors that can affect a person’s vulnerability. These factors can consist of finances, family, and education. (Burkholder & Nash,2013). The three groups that I feel are most vulnerable are people diagnosed with mental conditions, immigrants and refugees, indigent and homeless people.

Studies show that 50% of Americans have had some sort of knowledge of a mental illness in their lifetime. 5% of adults in America have been diagnosed with a serious mental disorder. (Burkholder & Nash, 2013). The homeless, indigent, and immigrants have a lack of medical of medical care or the lack of access to these services which makes then vulnerable. The homeless population being on the streets make them more susceptible to diseases. There are many people in the world today who travel worldwide daily. There are at least billions of people who are displaced and are immigrants in which healthcare is a concern. There are many refugees who do not have access to health services or the financial means available. (WHO). Those with mental conditions in comparison to the others may or may not have access to medical care as well and their mental conditions go untreated. Mental health issues can be composed of varying issues and symptoms, these can include emotional problems, and abnormal thoughts. (WHO).

The three health service needs for homeless and indigent would be first to provide them with a safe living environment. They would also need access to medical care. Lastly, would be to offer them some sort of support to be able to find employment as well as education. Immigrants who come to the U.S. may come from poverty-stricken countries. The first need for the immigrant population would be healthcare. Mental health is also a need for immigrants and refugees. Immigrants and refugees have the stress of being re-settled, and they have had exposure to traumatic events which include abuse, and violence in their community. (Betancourt, Theresa S. et, al. 2017). Healthcare counseling would also be a need to teach immigrants how to attain healthcare and the be educated on disease prevention. They may also need help with their language barrier to access healthcare. The needs for those diagnosed with mental conditions would be to be diagnosed properly and to receive proper treatment for their diagnosis. Thirdly, would be to have some sort of plan in place or community group for support.


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1.Burkholder, D. M., & Nash, N. B. (2013). Special populations in health care [Electronic version]. Retrieved from https://content.ashford.edu/

2. Comparing trauma exposure, mental healthneeds, and service utilization across clinical samples of refugee, immigrant, and U.S.‐origin children. (Links to an external site.)

Full Text Available

Academic Journal

Betancourt, Theresa S.; Newnham, Elizabeth A.; Birman, Dina; Lee, Robert; Ellis, B. Heidi; Layne, Christopher M.; Journal of Traumatic Stress, Vol 30(3), Jun, 2017 pp. 209-218. Publisher: John Wiley & Sons; [Journal Article], Database: PsycINFO (Links to an external site.)

3. World Health Organization.Retrieved from https://www.who.int/(Links to an external site.)


As far as I am concerned, I feel that the children, malnourished and the pregnant women are the most vulnerable groups which should be considered in different aspects. The consideration of these groups will play important roles in ensuring that the cases of disasters are reduced, and the people encouraged to carry out different tasks in the best way possible. My reasoning of selecting these groups is that they carry out activities which increase disasters in different organizations (Burkholder, 2013). According to researches on the statistical data related to the populations, it is true that the children are high contributors to the increased disasters in different country. I used the data to determine the most vulnerable groups by ensuring that analyzing the groups with the highest percentages of cases of disasters in different countries. On the other hand, the physical, mental and the social aspects of the health are compromised in the vulnerable populations in comparisons to the others by ensuring that the large percentages of the people in the groups contribute to health issues. Moreover, the health services needed for each of the vulnerable group include;

· Mental health care

· Pharmaceutical care

· Preventative care

· Physical and occupational therapy

· Substance abuse treatment

These health services will play important roles in ensuring that different issues are addressed in the best way possible. Moreover, the health services will enable the people from the groups to carry out different tasks in the expected manner therefore ensuring that the cases of disasters are reduced.


Burkholder, D. M., & Nash, N. B. (2013). Special populations in health care [Electronic version]. Retrieved from https://content.ashford.edu/ (Links to an external site.)

Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. (2013). Health disparities and inequality report — United States, 2013 (Links to an external site.) (Links to an external site.). Retrieved from http://www.cdc.gov/mmwr/pdf/other/su6203.pdf.

Guided Response: Review several of your classmates’ posts. Provide a substantive response (minimum of 100 words) to at least two of your peers. What risk factors did you select in the segments that your classmate did not? What alternative health needs could you propose in addition to those suggested by your classmate?


The three specific factors of vulnerable mothers and children I believe are education, income, and ethnicity. According to this video The United States has the highest infant death mortality rate, African American infants die 3x more than whites. These numbers are quite alarming, I believe it is due to income, education, and social norms. Poverty and communities play a huge role in the effects of infant mortality, poorer African American communities have a higher risk than that of white communities, these are all contributing factors. Women and teens become pregnant often not knowing what to do and have little education or resources on pregnancy, this leading to death of infants. Women in these communities deserve to be educated and given options for a healthy pregnancy if they choose to carry out the pregnancy. If they do not want to carry out the pregnancy it is important that they are aware of the options offered. These communities especially in Memphis, Tennessee portrayed in the video is the second most segregated city in the country, meaning African Americans on side whites on the other, so to speak. In these case the poor being African American are written off and have limited to almost no resources what so ever, that is the number one factor leading to infant mortality deaths I believe. Alcoholism is the third leading cause of death in the United States, I believe Alcoholism and addiction are a disease, some think it is a matter of will power. With rehab and medication there are cures, such factors can contribute to substance and alcohol dependency, income, family, and environment play a role. Alcoholism can effect anyone really, you do not have to come from the wrong side of town or have little means to be a victim. Those are all contributing factors of course but when it comes to substance and alcoholism it does not discriminate.

What can be done to help communities like the one in Memphis, preventive healthcare services, healthcare services provided to them including education, resources, and counseling should be available. The community of Memphis and other communities like that around the country should be able to have access to the same resources other people have. We are all human and should be given the right to have these resources available. Women and teen women have no hope or chance at a healthy pregnancy without the proper resources or even information about there pregnancy. It is hard to believe that this still goes on in America today, that communities are pushed aside because the color of there skin or treated unfairly because of how much money they make. Education, resources, and rehab services should be proved when a person is suffering from Alcoholism or substance abuse, often times they come into the Er and are given the proper resources. For those who do not seek treatment it is important as community leaders to provide information and where to go to seek treatment. These are two major issues effecting our communities and country, as a healthcare worker saving the lives of these babies and mothers and providing resources is essential.


While watching the first video “Premature Babies: Risks and cost”, I was quite astonished, this video was defiantly an eye opener for me. The video stated that black babies die three times the rate of whites in Memphis, Tn. There seems to be a great deal of poverty -stricken neighborhoods and crime. When it comes to infant mortality rates in this region, culture, ethnicity, and education are present. Gender is a factor because there are differences between men and women and their vulnerability are experienced in different was. Culture and ethnicity varies because of education and income level. (Burkholder & Nash, 2013). Both vulnerable mothers and children as well as people affected in some ways by these the factors mentioned earlier which include culture, ethnicity and education. Also, in the second video it was shown that alcoholism is the 3rd leading cause of death in the United States. Some alcoholics grow up in homes with family members who drink in excess daily or start out young drinking. Both groups are vulnerable due to lack of education and the culture or environment that have been raised in or around. In Memphis, Tn most of the girls did not have two parent households and were subjected to crime and violence. They lacked the education and knowledge to take care of their babies during their pregnancies. Their race and the area they live in as well a budget cuts caused disparities in their access to proper healthcare. As I have learned in previous class culture can play a role in our lives because it is the way we live our lives and the way our environment shapes our lives.

In my own experience I have had family members with alcoholic and substance abuse addictions. It is a constant struggle and, in their life, growing up, excessive drinking was the norm. This disease has caused separation of marriages, and loss of contact with family members, and health problems. Anyone can be at risk for alcoholism because it can affect anyone from rich to poor and any ethnicity.

Preventative care services are medically related and medical service based to provide care and maintain health, which can include education and teach individuals how to maintain a healthy lifestyle. (Burkholder & Nash, 2012). As in Memphis, Tn there was a group of individuals as well as the local health clinic who provided care for the pregnant girls and went through their pregnancy with them, while educating them along the way to keep the girls and babies healthy. Also, there can be treatment services such as medication that can be used as in the case of alcoholism. There is also support groups for these individuals whether it’s pregnancy or alcoholic addiction. Long term care services could also help for those dealing with alcoholism to make sure they are not tempted to relapse. When a family member has an alcoholic abuse issue, there is a disruption in the entire household and other family members may have issues with negative emotions as well. ( Sharma, Nitasha et, al. 2016). This long-term treatment and counseling could also include family members who are dealing with the alcoholic in the family.


1. Burkholder, D. M., & Nash, N. B. (2013). Special populations in health care [Electronic version]. Retrieved from https://content.ashford.edu/ (Links to an external site.)

2.Living with an alcoholic partner: Problems faced and coping strategies used by wives of alcoholic clients. (Links to an external site.)

Full Text Available

Academic Journal

By: Sharma, Nitasha; Sharma, Sunita; Ghai, Sandhya; Basu, Debashish; Kumari, Deepika; Singh, Dharamveer; Kaur, Gagandeep. Industrial Psychiatry Journal. Jan-Jun2016, Vol. 25 Issue 1, p65-71. 7p. DOI: 10.4103/0972-6748.196053. , Database: Business Source Elite (Links to an external site.)


Reviewing the video segment some of the factors such as age, gender and ethnicity should be considered in an effective manner. Reflecting on the experiences and the knowledge gained in the previous courses, the factors relate to the group’s vulnerability in that the young people lead to increased vulnerabilities. Again, the gender of group is another factor which should be considered as certain genders of the people are identified as main contributors to disasters (Buruchian, 2010).

When evaluating the groups, the factors should be considered for the purposes of ensuring that the right measures are put in place to address the issues experienced. The young people in the society are known to carry out different activities which contribute to the increase in the disasters in the country. However, parents should play major roles in ensuring that they take the required care to their children for the purposes of ensuring that the cases of vulnerabilities are reduced. When the cases of vulnerabilities are not addressed in the expected manner, losses are likely to be encountered therefore affecting the manner in which different tasks are carried out.

Based on the factors, the young people should be subjected to guidance and counseling as that will encourage them to carry out tasks which do not contribute to vulnerabilities. The medical counseling provided to the young people will play significant roles in ensuring that the security threats experienced are reduced and hence different activities carried out in the best way possible. The approaches to the care are preventive approach which helps in preventing the vulnerabilities from occurring (Leake, 2008).


Buruchian, B. (Director), Lerner, A. C., & Lerner, E. (Producer). (2010). Hope for the alcoholic: Scientific breakthroughs [Television series episode]. In Healthy Body, Healthy Mind. Boca Raton, FL: Information Television Network. Retrieved from the Films On Demand database.

Leake, C., & Appleby, D. (Producer & Director). (2008). Babyland: Infant mortality in Memphis, TN [News documentary]. United States: ABC News. Retrieved from the Films On Demand database.

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