Discussion #5 biology | Biology homework help

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I have 2  discussion question below that i need a reply for please help 


Contains unread postsDarrell Flowers posted Apr 19, 2019 11:09 AMLast edited: Friday, April 19, 2019 11:10 AM EDTSubscribe

Mendel selected the pea plant for his experiment, because they are inexpensive and easy to obtain the result what he expects from that plant, they have a short generation time, and produce many offspring. Such considerations enter into the choice of an organism for any piece of genetic research. Mendel chose seven different characters to study. The word “character” in this means a specific property of an organism; geneticists use this term as the same meaning for characteristic or trait. Mendel obtained characters of plants that were pure where all offspring come from being asexual or by crossing within the population that are identical for this character. By making sure that his lines bred true, Mendel had established a fixed baseline for his future experiments.

Mendel chose the common garden pea plant; genus Pisum; species Sativum.

The pea plant was ideal for his experiment because it grows annually and produces a large variety of offspring (peas) so he could draw more accurate results since genes are pulled at random.

When he was testing for height the dominant trait was tall (T) and the recessive trait was short (t). the parents were both true bred one for tall (TT) and the other for short (tt). The breeding of these two resulted in all offspring in F1 being tall with a gamete of Tt; we can then predict, with the use of the punnet square, that the results ratio represented in F2 will be 3:1 in favor of a tall plant.

Transcription is the process by which DNA is copied to mRNA, which carries the information needed for protein synthesis. Transcription takes place in two broad steps. First, pre-messenger RNA is formed, with the involvement of RNA polymerase enzymes. The process relies on Watson-Crick base pairing, and the resultant single strand of RNA is the reverse-complement of the original DNA sequence. The pre-messenger RNA is then “edited” to produce the desired mRNA molecule in a process called RNA splicing.

In translation the mRNA formed in transcription is transported out of the nucleus, into the cytoplasm, to the ribosome. Here, it directs protein synthesis. Messenger RNA is not directly involved in protein synthesis, transfer RNA (tRNA) is required for this. The process by which mRNA directs protein synthesis with the assistance of tRNA is called translation.

All organisms and cells control or regulate the transcription and translation of their DNA into protein. These proteins are what regulates what genes are present in cells no matter whether they are phenotype or genotype.



Contains unread postsOlivia Jones posted Apr 19, 2019 4:23 PMSubscribe

(1) Provide a general overview of Mendel’s experiment. 

Gregor Mendel developed the fundamental principals of heredity. His experiments resulted in us knowing that genes, carried on chromosomes are the basic functional units of heredity with the ability to be replicated, expressed, or mutated. 

What was the organism that Mendel studied (provide the genus and species name as well as the common name)?

The P plants that Mendel used in his experiments were each homozygous for the trait he was studying. Diploid organisms that are homozygous for a gene have two identical alleles, one on each of their homologous chromosomes. The genotype is often written as YY or yy, for which each letter represents one of the two alleles in the genotype.

Why was this organism ideal to study the law of independent assortment?

the characteristics of seed color and seed texture for two pea plants, one that has wrinkled, green seeds (rryy) and another that has round, yellow seeds (RRYY). Because each parent is homozygous, the law of segregation indicates that the gametes for the wrinkled–green plant all are ry, and the gametes for the round–yellow plant are all RY. Therefore, the F1 generation of offspring all are RrYy

List one dominant and one recessive example for a phenotype that Mendel found and describe the phenotypic ratio expected to result from crossing two parents heterozygous for only that trait.

Observing that true-breeding pea plants with contrasting traits gave rise to F1 generations that all expressed the dominant trait and F2generations that expressed the dominant and recessive traits in a 3:1 ratio

For the F2 generation of a monohybrid cross, the following three possible combinations of genotypes could result: homozygous dominant, heterozygous, or homozygous recessive. Because heterozygotes could arise from two different pathways (receiving one dominant and one recessive allele from either parent), and because heterozygotes and homozygous dominant individuals are phenotypically identical, the law supports Mendel’s observed 3:1 phenotypic ratio. 

 In simple terms discuss gene transcription and translation. What type of molecule results from translation? How do gene transcription and translation lead to a specific phenotype?

Gene transcription and translation is expressing a gene means manufacturing its corresponding protein, and this multilayered process has two major steps. In the first step, the information in DNA has transferred to a messenger RNA (mRNA) molecule by way of a process called transcription. During transcription, the DNA of a gene serves as a template for complementary base-pairing, and an enzyme called RNA Polymerase II catalyzes the formation of a pre-mRNA molecule, which is then processed to form mature mRNA. The resulting mRNA is a single-stranded copy of the gene, which next must be translated into a protein molecule.

During the process of transcription, the information stored in a gene’s DNA is transferred to a similar molecule called RNA (ribonucleic acid) in the cell nucleus.






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