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1. From the perspective of a supporter of authoritarianism, a flaw inherent in
democratic systems of government is that such governments
A. deny voting rights to a significant proportion of the population
B. deny society’s natural leaders the right to rule without question
C. fail to ensure an orderly transition at times of a leadership change
D. fail to tolerate the opinion of persons who hold extreme points of view
2. Ideologically, fascist dictatorships are based on the belief that governments
A. create societies that protect the unique abilities of individual citizens
B. relinquish responsibility for shaping the moral character of citizens
C. rely on the skills of their best citizens for guidance and leadership
D. bear the responsibility for every citizen’s economic well-being
3. Hitler’s rise to power was similar to Mussolini’s in that both dictators
A. relied heavily on public opposition to war and to national expansion
B. relied heavily on public fear of centralized political decision making
C. exploited public disillusionment with liberal-democratic governments
D. exploited public controversy regarding the roles of church and state
4. Which of the following actions would illustrate reactionary political forces at
work in Canada?
A. Parliament introduces reforms allowing for an elected Senate
B. A federal government apologizes for earlier mistreatment of an ethnic
C. A political party mandates that one-half of its candidates for election must be
D. The ruling party creates legislation allowing for the reinstatement of capital

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5. In non-democratic countries, elections are held primarily as a means of
A. reinforcing the perceived legitimacy of the regime in power
B. providing an opportunity for citizens to effect political change
C. meeting the legal requirements imposed by legislated constitutions
D. providing the elite with an insight into popular attitudes and beliefs
6. The cartoon focuses on an issue in contemporary Russia that is related to the
A. absence of voter choice in a one-party political system
B. entrenched extremism of the typical Russian voter
C. unstable and volatile nature of Russian politics
D. variety of possible market-oriented ideologies
7. Which of the following generalizations about the nature of politics does the
cartoon reinforce?
A. It cannot be assumed that an ideology will be rejected permanently
B. It is necessary for dictatorships to rely on force and terror to stay in control
C. Political leaders focus on promoting a positive image of themselves to the
D. Democratic systems of government usually create a stable political
New Zealand seems to have found it. So have Germany and Sweden.
It is, quite simply, a mixed system: half the members are selected from
constituencies, the same way they are now; half are drawn from party
lists, according to their share of the popular vote.
8. The excerpt interprets the ‘mixed system’ as combing aspects of both
A. federalism and a system of revolving minority governments
B. proportional representation and single member plurality
C. proportional representation and a coalition government
D. single member plurality and a congressional system
9. The dictatorial technique of directing popular discontent to the advantage of the
ruling elite is best illustrated by
A. Stalin’s purges of political opponents
B. Hitler’s persecution of ‘non-Aryan’ races
C. Mussolini’s March on Rome to gain widespread support
D. Lenin’s support of mutinous troops during the Bolshevik Revolution
10. Multiparty political systems are more likely to reflect the fundamental principles
of democracy than are two-party political systems because multiparty systems
A. produce stronger majority governments
B. ensure meaningful debate on political issues
C. inform voters consistently about political issues
D. represent a greater cross section of public opinion
11. In practice, the political and economic ideas of Adolf Hitler’s Nazi Party were
fundamentally in opposition to the idea of
A. elitism
B. equality
C. nationalism
D. free enterprise
12. The focus of these cartoon from the early 1990s is the
A. changing political landscape in eastern Europe
B. growing popularity of left-wing doctrines in western Europe
C. strong condemnation of capitalism as a workable system in formerly
communist economies
D. diminishing appeal of proportional representation as an alternative to oneparty totalitarianism
13. Which of the following nations have resisted the ideological shifts referred to in
these two sources?
A. Poland and the Czech Republic
B. North Korea and Cuba
C. Iraq and Saudi Arabia
D. Albania and Romania
14. The assumption underlying both sources is the belief that
A. popular movements in former communist countries have been focused
more on national unity that on political stability
B. totalitarian socialist practices have been strongly condemned by rightwing extremist youth
C. Marxist-Leninist theories have been criticized unfairly
D. Extreme leftist ideals have lost their appeal
15. According to the results shown in Source I, if the electoral system had been
based on a system of proportional representation, which of the following political
parties would have benefited most?
A. Liberal
B. Reform
C. New Democrat
D. Progressive Conservative
16. Comments in Source II suggest that Canada’s current electoral system
A. creates a political stalemate in parliament
B. creates disenchantment among some voters
C. provides a practical model for fledgling democracies
D. provides political extremists with excessive political influence
17. According to Source III, a system of proportional representation may result in a
government that
A. promoted cabinet solidarity
B. produces unpopular legislation
C. experiences political instability
D. abandons democratic processes
18. Which of the following statements provides an accurate description of a
relationship among the sources?
A. Information in Source I supports the contentions made I Source II
B. Information in Source I contradicts the contentions made in Source II
C. Source III provides evidence to support ideas in Source II
D. The three sources provide contradictory information
19. Which of the following characteristics of many democratic elections is most
likely to be present in an election staged by a non-democratic regime?
A. Independent verification of elections results
B. Free competition between rival political parties
C. Widely held electoral franchise with high voter-turnout
D. Freedom of speech and assembly during the campaign
The political left was built on a view of human life that was partly true, but not
wholly true. People, the left argued, are not inherently unequal or inherently bad, but
society can make them so.
By changing society, the left believed, you could remove the chains that oppress
and distort peoples’ lives. By redistributing income, you could create fairness. By
improving the conditions of life, you could improve people. Crime, violence,
greed, human misery – these were byproducts of an exploitive society. Humanize
society and you humanize life
20. Which of the following generalizations reflects characteristics attributed to the
‘political left’ described in the commentary
A. The left encourages individuals to take greater responsibility for their
B. The left believes that people’s lives have been overwhelmed by the
intrusiveness of government
C. The left advocates government involvement in people’s lives to minimize
social and economic disparity
D. The left supports cautious changes to existing political traditions and
institutions of government
21. To right-wing thinkers, the methods that left-wing politicians would use to
achieve the goal of ‘improving the conditions of life’ are unacceptable because
they involve
A. economically penalizing those who have demonstrated self-reliance and
B. the creation of an economic system dominated by a small group of
C. the elimination of state-financed programs that offer economic security for
D. restricting the freedom of workers to organize and bargain collectively

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22. Which of the following explanations for Hitler’s rise to power in Weimar
Germany is historically incorrect?
A. Hitler cleverly used the dissatisfaction of war veterans as a subject from
many of his speeches
B. Hitler accepted President Hindenburg’s request to assume the position of
C. Hitler successfully appealed to various communist interests for support
D. Hitler skillfully manipulated existing democratic structures for his own
Yet it is in federal politics that first-past-the-post has done the most
damage. In the [1993] election, it very nearly killed Canada. Take
the three parties that won the lion’s share of the non-Liberal vote:
Reform, with 19 percent of the popular vote, won 52 seats. The
Bloc Quebecois, with 13.5 percent won 54. The Conservatives,
with 16 per cent, took just two. Why did the Tories fare so poorly,
when their popular vote was comparable? Because the other two
parties’ votes were more regionally concentrated. Reform won 36
per cent in B.C. and 52 percent in Alberta. The Bloc, with 49 per
cent of the vote in Quebec, gathered three-quarters of the seats in
that province
23. In claiming that the ‘first-past-the-post’ electoral system ‘very nearly killed
Canada,’ the author is emphasizing this system’s tendency to
A. over represent parties with radical antidemocratic ideas
B. create political instability by preventing the formation of majority governments
C. reward regionally based parties at the expense of parties with broad-based
national support
D. allow special interest parties to play a dominant role in the formation of
24. To solve the problem described in the passage, advocates of parliamentary
reform would support adopting the system used to elect the
A. Swedish Riksdag
B. American Senate
C. British House of Commons
D. American House of Representatives
25. A totalitarian system is best illustrated by
A. System I
B. System II
C. System III
D. System IV
26. The system of checks and balances outlined in the American Constitution is
represented by
A. System I
B. System II
C. System III
D. System IV
27. In practice, the major difference between ideologies of fascism and communism
is most evident in the application of
A. propaganda
B. one-party rule
C. indoctrination
D. private ownership
28. In arguing against a parliamentary system, supporters of the American
congressional system would insist that the advantage of the congressional system
is that it
A. allows for the greater separation of powers
B. gives the strongest mandate to the executive branch
C. allows for the greatest responsiveness of special interest groups
D. gives citizens the strongest guarantee for their political participation
29. Today in Europe and North America, many neo-Nazi groups are regarded by
their opponents as politically
A. liberal
B. reactionary
C. progressive
D. conservative
30. One of the ways fascist theory differs from communist theory is that in fascist
A. class differences are accepted
B. economic planning is centralized
C. agricultural production is collectivized
D. state government is distinct from the party structure
The state parliaments were abolished and their functions taken over by the
central government…. All political parties, with the exception of the Nazis,
were prohibited. Trade unions were banned, and strikes were made illegal,
since … the interests of private individuals and [certain] sections of the
population were sacrificed for the welfare of the whole community. The
electorate was bombarded with Nazi propaganda … and in the plebiscite of
November 1933 …. 96 per cent of the voters approved of all that he had
31. The most appropriate title for the excerpt would be
A. Hitler Emphasizes Aryan Superiority
B. Hitler Enforces Indoctrination Program
C. Hitler Consolidates Nazi Power
D. Hitler Destroys Internal Party Opposition
32. The 1933 results quoted above support which of the following generalizations?
A. An effective system of force and intimidation by storm troopers achieved
national goals.
B. The techniques used by the Nazis were successful in creating the
appearance of overwhelming support
C. The German citizens believed their military success depended on strong
party support
D. A strong national party achieved the goals of the German people more
33. To better understand how dictators eliminate political rivals, the event from the
history of the Nazi party in Germany that would be most useful to research
would be the
A. Beer-Hall Putsch, 1923
B. Nuremberg Rally, 1933
C. Night of the Long Knives, 1934
D. Remilitarization of the Rhineland, 1936
34. Theoretically, characterizing a political figure as a reactionary implies that the
A. lacks a definable philosophy or program for political change.
B. supports action that oppose the political ideals of liberalism.
C. follows a moderate political philosophy and appeals to a wide variety of
D. opposes the political status quo and seeks to bring about sweeping left-wing
An individual holds the following political and economic views:
* Citizens should follow the will of the leader.
* Significant change is required to bring society back to its original
traditions and values.
* Economic activity must reflect state goals.
* Citizens must accept that natural inequality exists among races and
35. To most Canadians, these views would be considered
A. liberal.
B. reactionary.
C. progressive.
D. conservative.
36. The organization that would most welcome this individual into its membership
would be
A. a moderate, socialist political party.
B. an anarchist commune.
C. a fascist youth group.
D. a communist cell.
37. A small, relatively unknown political party would have the best electoral
prospects in a country that adopted a system of
A. direct democracy.
B. representative democracy.
C. proportional representation.
D. representation by population.
38. Which sequence best describes how a left-wing radical might similarly label
someone holding moderate views?
A. The moderate would be labeled a conservative, the conservative a reactionary,
and the reactionary a fascist.
B. The moderate would be labeled a conservative, the conservative a progressive,
and the progressive a Marxist.
C. The moderate would be labeled a progressive, the progressive a fascist, and the
fascist a Leninist.
D. The moderate would be labeled an extremist, the extremist a collectivist, and the
collectivist a Nazi.
39. Which title accurately describes the following chart?
The Soviet Union ( 1928 – 53) . . Kulaks, Trotskyites
Germany ( 1933 – 45) . . Bolsheviks, Social Democrats
Italy (19922 – 43) . . Liberals, Socialists
A. Communist Dictatorships and Their Opponents.
B. Extreme Right Wing Dictatorships and Their Victims.
C. Dictatorships and Their Supporters.
D. Dictatorships and Their Scapegoats.
40. Introducing an electoral system of proportional representation into Canada would
likely encourage a
A. greater number of political parties.
B. lower percentage of voter turnout.
C. greater chance of majority government.
D. fewer number of coalition governments.
A right-wing reactionary would label someone
having liberal beliefs a socialist, the socialist a
communist, and the communist a totalitarian
41. During their rise to power, both Joseph Stalin and Adolf Hitler successfully
A. appealed to all social classes for political support.
B. led popular revolutions against the established order.
C. intimidated many opponents through acts of violence.
D. manipulated a multiparty system to political advantage.
42. Controlled participation within fascist dictatorships is based on the fundamental
principle that it is in the interest of the elite to
A. give citizens the appearance of a voice in government.
B. channel discontent against certain enemies of the state.
C. cause citizens to fear government reprisal for disobedience.
D. induce obedience among the populace by regulating the education system.
43. A majority parliamentary system of government has the advantage over a
congressional system of government by insuring against prolonged disagreement
between the
A. public and private sectors of an economy.
B. executive and judicial branches of government.
C. left-wing and right-wing factions of the electorate.
D. legislative and executive branches of government.
44. As one measure to prevent “tyranny of the majority”, democratic governments
use the procedure of
A. restricting the influence of lobbyists
B. preserving an independent judiciary
C. increasing the status of public forums
D. limiting the money spent on election campaigns
45. A feature of western democratic systems that has emerged in the new state of
Russia is the
A. restriction of political competition to only two major parties.
B. selection of leaders through American-style party conventions.
C. extension of the right to vote to females 18 years of age and older.
D. existence of political competition among various parliamentary factions.
46. In the context of the current political climate in Russia, the speaker in the cartoon
would be considered
A. liberal.
B. radical.
C. moderate.
D. conservative.
47. In non-democratic countries, elections are held primarily as a means of
A. reinforcing the perceived legitimacy of the regime in power
B. providing an opportunity for citizens to effect political change
C. meeting the legal requirements imposed by legislated constitutions
D. providing the elite with an insight into popular attitudes and beliefs
48. An ironic twist of Soviet history is that individuals who sought to restore the
communist state and ideology at the time of the August 1991 attempted coup
were viewed by many of their fellow citizens as being politically
A. liberal.
B. radical.
C. moderate.
D. reactionary.
49. A common feature of the governments of both Adolf Hitler and Josef Stalin was
A. nationalization of all major means of production
B. use of independent people’s courts to render justice
C. justification of totalitarian rule based on racial superiority
D. elimination of political opponents through internal party purges
50. The tendency of the Canadian electoral system to produce majority governments,
combined with the vigorous enforcement of caucus solidarity, results in
A. enhanced opportunities for backbenchers to influence government policy
B. a reduced role for special interest groups and political lobbyists
C. a concentration of political power in the executive branch
D. greater accountability of parliament to the electorate

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51. The humour in the cartoon is based on one speaker
A. showing a bias against communist ideology.
B. criticizing something she knows nothing about.
C. advocating an action that she has just criticized
D. showing a bias toward the democratic political system.
52. An elitist supporter of authoritarian government is arguing against the use of a
referendum to resolve a major political issue. Which argument would such a
supporter likely use?
A. A referendum would give political power to a group that lacks the knowledge
needed to make an informed decision.
B. Input from every citizen is required in the process of reaching a decision but
not in approving it.
C. Political decisions are best made by common citizens, not their elected
D. Certain governments have used the results of a referendum to change their

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53. In most democracies, a political party of the center is typically one whose
policies are designed primarily to
A. create a more equitable society
B. achieve ideologically determined goals
C. be flexible to meet emerging conditions
D. reduce the role of government in citizens lives
Statement I: The hereditary emperor is the head of state but has little real power.
Statement II: The lower house of the legislative branch (Diet) is called the House of
Representatives, the members of which are elected under a system of
proportional representation.
Statement III: The Japanese Prime Minister may appoint individuals to cabinet who
are not members of either the upper of lower houses of the Diet.
Statement IV: The Japanese constitution provides a framework of laws and
regulations under which the government operates.
54. Which statement describes an aspect of the Japanese system that is more similar
to the American than to the Canadian system of government?
A. Statement I.
B. Statement II.
C. Statement III.
D. Statement IV.
55. Considering these statements, which of the following comments are true?
A. The role of the Japanese Emperor is similar to that of the Canadian Governor-
B. The role of the Japanese Emperor is similar to that of the American President.
C. The lower houses of both the Canadian and Japanese legislative branches are
elected by proportional representation.
D. The lower houses of both the American and Japanese legislative branches are
elected by proportional representation.
56. Which ideology is associated with these developments?
A. Fascism
B. Marxism
C. Utopian Socialism
D. Democratic Socialism
57. A radical left-wing revolutionary would argue that the historical order in which
these developments occur is
58. In Canada, an action that would represent a movement away from the practice of
traditional representative democracy and movement toward the practice of direct
democracy would be
A. a prime minister calling for a national referendum to determine government
policy on the abortion issue
B. the House of Commons amending a private member’s bill on abortion
C. a prime minister allowing members of Parliament to vote by conscience on a
controversial abortion bill
D. an anti-abortion group disrupting question period in the House of Commons
59. Which box in the diagram identifies a characteristic that is inconsistent with the
diagram’s central theme?
A. Box I
B. Box II
C. Box III
D. Box IV
60. Multiparty political systems are more likely to reflect the fundamental principles
of democracy than are two-party political systems because multiparty systems
A. produce stronger majority governments
B. ensure meaningful debate on political issues
C. inform voters consistently about political issues
D. represent a greater cross section of public opinion

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