1. Prepare the following financial exhibits for 2016, 2017, and 2018:
0. Ratio table with industry averages
0. Vertical analysis of income statements and balance sheets
0. Horizontal analysis (index numbers) of income statements and balance sheets
0. 5-part analysis of ROE
0. Cash flow statements (2017 and 2018 only)
Note: All ratios should be calculated using year-end figures – yearly averages should not be used.
2. Prepare a 2-page memorandum as requested by Mr. Blix. The memo should be divided into sections describing liquidity, asset management, long-term debt ability, profitability, and recommendations.
Submit the memorandum with exhibits using the assignment drop box in Moodle.
No Excel file should be submitted.
|Financial Ratios||2016||2017||2018||Industry Average|
|Inventory Turnover in Days|
|A/R Turnover in Days|
|A/P Turnover in Days|
|Cash Conversion Cycle|
|Fixed Assets Turnover|
|Total Assets Turnover|
|LT Debt to Total Capitalization|
|Cash Flow Coverage|
|Effective Interest Rate|
|Gross Profit Margin|
|Operating Profit Margin|
|Net Profit Margin|
|Return on Assets|
|Return on Equity|
|Analysis of ROE – 5-Way|
|EBIT/Sales||EBT/EBIT||NI/EBT||Total Asset Turnover||Debt Ratio||ROE|
Total: _________ / 100
Letter Grade: _________
Accuracy of Financial Data – 25%
|Analysis of ROE||/5|
|Cash flow statements||/5|
One mark will be deducted for each major mistake.
|Long-term debt paying ability||/10|
|Grammatical and spelling errors||/10|
Fredrik Blix immigrated to Canada six years ago after meeting his wife Cathy, a Canadian, on a Mediterranean holiday. Mr. Blix was born in Darlarna province in Sweden, but moved to Stockholm after completing the Canadian equivalent of high school called gymnasium. While in Stockholm, Fredrik earned a diploma in commercial design and apprenticed with Arlanda, a furniture manufacturer that supplies the IKEA chain with innovative new products.
After working for Arlanda for eight years and acquiring a reputation as a very inventive young designer, Mr. Blix moved to Winnipeg, Manitoba, his new wife’s home town, and secured a design job with Palliser, Canada’s largest furniture manufacturer. Initially, Mr. Blix enjoyed his job at Palliser and became involved as a hockey coach in the local community and was an avid curler, but after a few years he became frustrated at work. Although he had a very friendly relationship with his colleagues and received a number of raises and promotions, he longed to return to designing furniture with more of a Swedish influence as he had at Arlanda back in Sweden.
A New Venture
In early 2015, Mr. Blix approached the Crocus Fund, a labour-sponsored venture capital firm located in Winnipeg about financing a new “boutique” furniture manufacturer. His new company, Darlarna, would design and manufacture high-end, Swedish-styled furniture for distribution in Canadian initially but he hoped eventually to “crack” the U.S. market. Instead of distributing his product through the large chains such as The Brick, Dufresne, or Leon’s or department stores such as The Bay, Mr. Blix hoped to sell his products through high-end, independently-owned furniture retailers who provide interior design services along with an extensive selection of home furnishings.
After preparing a detailed business plan and raising $180,000 in financing from friends and family in the Mennonite community in Winnipeg and Steinbach, the Crocus Fund agreed to make a matching investment for a 40 percent share in Darlarna Furniture. By October, 2015, Mr. Blix had purchased a small factory and the necessary manufacturing equipment and had recruited skilled furniture makers who he knew from working at Palliser. Darlarna began shipping product in January, 2016 and quickly built up sales in its target market with its unique designs.
After a very successful 2016, Mr. Blix found that his current factory couldn’t keep up with demand so he began purchasing additional manufacturing equipment. Instead of buying used equipment for which there was an active market in Winnipeg with Palliser’s large manufacturing operations, Fredrik felt new equipment might help impress customers when they came for factory visits. By late 2008, the factory was becoming too small due to growing sales and large inventories of raw materials and work in process, so a search was begun for new facilities in Winnipeg.
In 2018, the Winnipeg economy was “booming” and it was very difficult to find skilled furniture makers given opportunities in the building trades and the Tar Sands oil developments in northern Alberta. As a result, Darlarna was forced to give its workers a significant increase in wages and benefits to retain them. Also, key production inputs such as fine leathers and foam cushioning materials rose dramatically in price due to a rapid expansion of the Chinese furniture industry.
By 2018, Mr. Blix felt that Darlarna was ready to expand into the U.S. market so he began taking out ads in a number of American design magazines to test the market and prepared an expensive new catalogue displaying its many products. With the prospect of increased orders from the U.S., the company expanded its order processing, shipping/receiving and accounting functions despite industry reports of a possible deep recession in the U.S. in the coming year due to excesses in the mortgage, consumer, and corporate lending markets.
The financial statements for Darlarna’s first three years of operation are:
|Cost of sales||781,000||952,000||1,210,000|
|Total current assets||688,124||769,639||960,837|
|Fixed assets, net||356,950||498,050||603,450|
|Line of credit||61,500||51,300||130,200|
|Current portion of long-term debt||32,500||42,800||57,850|
|Total current liabilities||272,500||360,460||569,072|
|Total liabilities and equities||1,045,074||1,267,689||1,564,287|
Mr. Blix was also able to attain average ratios from the Bank of Montreal, which they considered typical of operations in the high-end furniture manufacturing industry.
|Inventory turnover in days||90 days|
|Accounts receivable turnover in days||60 days|
|Accounts payable turnover in days||15 days|
|Cash conversion cycle||135 days|
|Fixed asset turnover ratio||4.01|
|Total asset turnover ratio||2.21|
|Long-term debt to total capitalization ratio||30%|
|Cash flow coverage||3.21|
|Effective interest rate||8%|
|Gross profit margin||45%|
|Operating profit margin||25%|
|Net profit margin||10%|
Darlarna was able to secure both line of credit and term loan financing with the Bank of Montreal. The line of credit had a limit of $300,000 and was secured by both inventory and accounts receivable. Since Darlarna’s customers were small retailers with more limited access to financing compared to the large chains or department stores, the Bank of Montreal was only prepared to lend 40 percent of the value of the accounts receivables that were not yet past due. Also, because the inventory was composed mostly of raw materials and partially completed furniture and as a result difficult to sell, it agreed to lend only 20 percent of its value. The line of credit is non-committed, which means the bank is not obligated to lend to the company under the loan agreement if it feels the company is in financial difficulties or if the bank has a shortage of loanable funds.
All loans require that the company maintain a current ratio of 2.0, a cash flow coverage ratio of 4.0, and a long-term debt to total capitalization ratio of 55 percent. The loan agreements also specify that Mr. Blix could withdraw no more than $70,000 a year for living expenses and that he had to receive the bank’s permission to make capital purchases. Financial statements were to be provided when Frederic Blix met with his loans officer in July and January each year.
Darlarna sells all products net 60 and purchases most of its inputs 2/15, net 60. These terms are typical of the high-end furniture manufacturing industry.
When Mr. Blix got his 2018 financial statements back from the accountant in mid-January, 2019, he became quite concerned about the dramatic drop in profits as he knew the venture capitalists were looking to sell their investment soon. He was also alarmed by reports in the media that a number of investment firms in the U.S. had failed and required government bailouts to continue operating. Could a severe recession be soon to follow? How would this influence demand for his products? Would the Bank of Montreal still be prepared to provide needed financing?
In response to these concerns, Mr. Blix retained Sally Delaney, CPA to conduct an analysis of Darlarna’s operations and to make recommendations for future action within the week.
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