fbpx

Consider each of the following scenarios

Don't use plagiarized sources. Get Your Assignment on
Consider each of the following scenarios
Just from $13/Page
Order Now
  • Consider each of the following scenarios and explain whether the variable in question is a confounder:
  •  
  1. A study of the relationship between exercise and heart attacks that is conducted among women who do not smoke. Explain whether gender is a confounder.
  2. A case-control study of the relationship between liver cirrhosis and alcohol use. In this study, smoking is associated with drinking alcohol and is a risk factor for liver cirrhosis among both non-alcoholics and alcoholics. Explain whether smoking is a confounder.

 

  • Interpret the results of the following studies
  •  
  1. An odds ratio of 1.2 (95% confidence interval: 0.8-1.5) is found for the association of low socioeconomic status and occurrence of obesity.
  2. A relative risk of 3.0 is reported for the association between consumption of red meat and the occurrence of colon cancer. The p-value of the association is 0.15.
  3. An odds ratio of 7 (95% confidence interval: 3.0 – 11.4) is found for the association of smoking and lung cancer.

 

  • The relationship between cigarette smoking and lung cancer was conducted in a case-control study with 700 cases and 425 controls. Using the results below, calculate the crude odds ratio and explain what the ratio means:
  • Heavy Smoking—Cases: 450; Controls: 200
  • Not Heavy Smoking—Cases: 250; Controls: 225
  • A case-control study looked at the association of alcohol use with the occurrence of coronary heart disease (CHD). There were 300 participants in the study (150 cases and 150 controls). Of the cases, 90 participants drank alcohol; of the controls, 60 participants drank alcohol.

    Design the appropriate 2×2 table, calculate and interpret the appropriate measure of association.

    You suspect that the association between alcohol use and CHD might be confounded by smoking. You collect the following data:

 

Smokers

Non-Smokers

 

CHD

No CHD

CHD

No CHD

Alcohol Use

80

40

10

20

No Alcohol Use

20

10

40

80


  • Calculate the appropriate measure of association between alcohol use and CHD in both smokers and non-smokers. Discuss whether smoking was a confounder of the association. What is the relationship of alcohol use to CHD after controlling for confounding?
  • A study was conducted in young adults to look at the association between taking a driver’s education class and the risk of being in an automobile accident. 450 participants were included in the study, 150 cases who had been in an accident and 300 controls who had not. Of the 150 cases, 70 reported having taken a driver’s education class. Of the 300 controls, 170 reported having taken a driver’s education class.


Calculate and interpret the appropriate measure of association between driver’s education and accidents.

The question arose as to whether gender might be an effect modifier of this association. When gender was assessed, the data looked like the following:

 

Women

Men

 

Accident

No Accident

Accident

No Accident

Driver’s Ed

10

50

60

120

No Driver’s Ed

40

50

40

80


Perform the appropriate calculations to test for effect modification. Interpret your results.

 

Calculate the price
Make an order in advance and get the best price
Pages (550 words)
$0.00
*Price with a welcome 15% discount applied.
Pro tip: If you want to save more money and pay the lowest price, you need to set a more extended deadline.
We know how difficult it is to be a student these days. That's why our prices are one of the most affordable on the market, and there are no hidden fees.

Instead, we offer bonuses, discounts, and free services to make your experience outstanding.
How it works
Receive a 100% original paper that will pass Turnitin from a top essay writing service
step 1
Upload your instructions
Fill out the order form and provide paper details. You can even attach screenshots or add additional instructions later. If something is not clear or missing, the writer will contact you for clarification.
Pro service tips
How to get the most out of your experience with Homework Writing Services
One writer throughout the entire course
If you like the writer, you can hire them again. Just copy & paste their ID on the order form ("Preferred Writer's ID" field). This way, your vocabulary will be uniform, and the writer will be aware of your needs.
The same paper from different writers
You can order essay or any other work from two different writers to choose the best one or give another version to a friend. This can be done through the add-on "Same paper from another writer."
Copy of sources used by the writer
Our college essay writers work with ScienceDirect and other databases. They can send you articles or materials used in PDF or through screenshots. Just tick the "Copy of sources" field on the order form.
Testimonials
See why 20k+ students have chosen us as their sole writing assistance provider
Check out the latest reviews and opinions submitted by real customers worldwide and make an informed decision.
CRITICAL WRITING AND READING
Always use Grammarly before submitting your papers.
Customer 460653, March 26th, 2022
International Relations
Superb!
Customer 462817, April 6th, 2022
Social Work and Human Services
Excellent.
Customer 460073, June 20th, 2022
Business
Quality work. Looking forward to your future contributions.
Customer 463467, December 2nd, 2022
Finance/Acc Related
Good concept breakdown.
Customer 460073, July 9th, 2022
Statistics
super professional
Customer 462485, May 17th, 2022
Economics
I would like to thank you for your hard work. The essay is clear and clean.
Customer 462687, March 14th, 2022
Health Care
It is exactly my expectation. Thank you.
Customer 454755, June 30th, 2020
Interior Decoration
Excellent work! We look down to your future contribution
Customer 463463, November 16th, 2022
Nursing
Job well done!!!
Customer 453939, February 24th, 2020
Other
Michelle is a great writer! Assignment on time.
Customer 463427, October 1st, 2022
Business and administrative studies
Good work.
Customer 459947, June 4th, 2022
11,595
Customer reviews in total
96%
Current satisfaction rate
3 pages
Average paper length
37%
Customers referred by a friend
OUR GIFT TO YOU
15% OFF your first order
Use a coupon FIRST15 and enjoy expert help with any task at the most affordable price.
Claim my 15% OFF Order in Chat