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Community Safety Strategy | Online Assignment Help

Assessment 2: Community Safety Strategy This 3,500 word assessments is: Compile a report to: (1) examine a crime problem, based on one of the case studies provided (2) make and discuss a proposal or set of proposals that the local community safety partnership can implement to combat the problem (3) justify your proposed strategies by linking them to criminological theory, crime prevention practice and research/evaluation evidence. The case studies are about: residential burglary; car theft; violence in the night-time economy; and domestic violence. You must choose one of these case studies (on unilearn and below) on which to base your assessment. The assessment requires you to consider: The nature of the problem and your proposals for addressing it; and • To provide an academic justification for these. Completing the assessment: Choose one crime problem from the four case studies which are below (and provided on uniLearn) and follow the outline and guidance below to complete the assessment. Introduction – Briefly state the problem being addressed and set out what the reader can expect to find in the rest of the essay (sign-posting). The nature of the problem – Summarise, from the information provided in the case study and our understanding of such problems, the following: what is the problem; where does it take place; when does it take place; who is involved (victims and offenders); how is it a problem and how is the crime being committed; and why might the crime be occurring? You will likely need to make reference to the crime/problem analysis triangle in this section as well. You should also highlight where not enough data are available to answer these questions and what could be done to address this. The proposals for addressing the problem – In making reference back to the Who, What, When, Where, How and Why, you should make suggestions for TWO appropriate crime prevention responses, which could be implemented by a community safety partnership. These should be justifiable and realistic. You will then need to go on to provide an academic justification, but here simply set out your proposal and justify them in relation to your analysis of the problem. The academic justification – You do not need to repeat the points you have made in the previous section, but you should be referring to these points throughout the commentary as you academically and critically justify the suggestions you have made for addressing the problem. To do this, you will need to draw on underpinning theory and published evidence of success of such crime prevention interventions. You should also critically assess any other potential impacts of introducing this programme, both positive and negative, the potential strengths and weaknesses of such a programme, and the ethical implications. You should also bear in mind that resources are finite, so you must be realistic in your suggestions, whilst also recognizing the benefits and difficulties of implementation by the Community Safety Partnership. Conclusion – Summarise the main points from the sections above, making it clear how you suggest your chosen problem should be tackled, and the main justifications for such a strategy. Learning outcomes for assessment 2 Ability 3. Critically apply explanations of crime, criminality and disorder to justifications and aims of responses to crime, criminality and disorder 4. Critically apply crime prevention approaches to problems of crime 5. Demonstrate appropriate key and IT skills The table on the following pages contains advice on meeting the learning outcomes for assessment 2. Learning outcome How to meet the learning outcome Tips for completion 3. Critically apply explanations of crime, criminality and disorder to justifications and aims of responses to crime, criminality and disorder – Nature: Be concise and clear in your summary of the problem, setting out the who, what, when, where, how and why of the problem. – Proposals: Suggest justifiable methods of crime prevention and community safety for the chosen problem. – Academic justification: Define your terms, introduce the variety of approaches to crime prevention and community safety, discuss their theoretical underpinnings (e.g. explanations for crime) and the evidence for/against their likely success. Present evidenced justification for your proposed interventions – Pick ONE case study only and use this for the whole assessment. Do not just discuss that type of crime generally. – Nature and proposal: Consider the who, what, when, where, how and why of the problem, and note when sufficient information is not available to do this thoroughly. This must be driven by the case study, though can be informed by existing knowledge of such problems. You do not need to write lots of academic material here, looking at the nature of the crime in question, but you need to be able to hypothesise about what is happening and why this might be the case – as this understanding should underpin the proposals that you make. – Make suitable, realistic, legal, and justifiable recommendations for implementing crime prevention/ community safety activities in response to the chosen problem. – You must propose TWO interventions only (if you include more than two, then only the first two will be marked). These may be related or may tackle different elements of the problem. They may be underpinned by the same theory/approach or by different ones (e.g. they may both be situational crime prevention, or one may be situational and one secondary). The aim is not to address everything about the problem, but identify what you think are some of the key issues and suggest what can be academically justified as the most suitable interventions to work on these. Note: An intervention is something specific like alley-gating or an after-school club. It is not ‘situational crime prevention’ (this is an approach). – Produce a well written, organized and professional report, and ensure that you included references were appropriate. – Academic justification: Write critically as you address the points to the left. You must justify the interventions you have proposed theoretically and evidentially. The interventions will not be perfect, so you should consider their weaknesses, not just their strengths. You must discuss the theoretical underpinnings of your chosen approach(es) to explain how it might work, as well as drawing on a wide range of research and evaluation evidence to support your arguments. Ensure that you included references throughout. 4. Critically apply crime prevention approaches to problems of crime – Proposal: Devise a strategy that is realistic with respect to the crime problem and current socio-political circumstances and that limits any ethical or discriminatory concerns – Academic justification: Critically consider these concepts in relation to crime prevention generally, and your proposed interventions specifically – Proposal: Ensure your strategy is realistic in terms of finite resources, and the legality of interventions. Be aware of the current socio-political climate, e.g. what types of approaches are currently favoured, as well as considering the cultural and ethical context in which the interventions will be employed – they must be acceptable to the CSP and the local community. Ensure your suggestions are for interventions that a community safety partnership could employ; this means you should not suggest methods of punishment, sentencing or changes to the court system (other than, e.g. introduction of drug or domestic violence courts). If you wish to introduce offender-based programmes, you can do so, but they should be provided as an additional service that allows a greater range of sentencing options (and you should consider whether they would also be available for self, as opposed to just court, referral). You must not, e.g., suggest ‘tougher sentencing’. – Academic justification: Introduce a critical and evidenced discussion of these issues to demonstrate your awareness, particularly in relation to the possible ethical implications and negative impacts of crime prevention/ community safety interventions for particular communities/cultures. – Ensure your strategy is structured coherently and includes a sign-posting introduction, a substantive and well-structured content to explore the material in-depth and critically, and a set of summary conclusions to draw the main points of your strategy together. You may use sub-headings, but not to excess. – Ensure your assessment: 1. is word processed, within the word limit (3500 words +/- 10%), and submitted on time via Turnitin; 2. is cited throughout using the APA 6 referencing system and includes a list of correctly formatted references at the end; 3. draws upon a wide range of appropriate sources which goes beyond generic text books and the guided reading (e.g., journal articles and recent research reports) in order to evidence your ability to carry out literature searches, and select and summarise suitable material. Case studies (pick ONE only) Case Study One: Domestic Burglary Domestic burglaries on A Division have been noted by the police as being 50% above the usual average for this time of year (December-January). Offences have increased through October and November (when higher rates are often seen). The peak times for offending are believed to be late afternoon and early evening mainly on weekdays, but as the targeted premises are usually unoccupied, the exact times are difficult to establish. In the majority of offences small electronic items and cash are stolen. Occasionally jewellery is also taken. There have been some offences where large LCD televisions have been stolen, but police analysts suspect these may be part of a different, ongoing series that is not part of this strategy. Offences are generally concentrated in a particular suburb (encompassed by police beat 8). This area is characterised by large numbers of terraced houses, many of which are rented. These properties have alleyways to the rear which are accessed via shared entrances (two per row of properties). Many of the burglaries have involved forced rear entry from these alleyways, usually through back doors. The area is populated by young working class families. Analysis also shows that there are a relatively high number of known offenders living in or near this area. There is unconfirmed intelligence that one property within this burglary hotspot is being used as a crack house. Forensic evidence has been recovered from some of the scenes and warrants have been issued for the arrest of two men who have previous convictions for drug possession, burglary and other acquisitive offences. It is believed, however, that these males are only responsible for some of the offences. Case Study Two: Car Theft The local authority have asked the police to provide further information regarding reports they have received from users of a town centre car park that young people are hanging around after school and that some vehicles have been damaged. Analysis of police data shows this car park also has a relatively high number of recorded offences of theft from vehicles, as well as some thefts of older vehicles which is of particular concern for this strategy. This is a long stay, pay and display car park. During the day it is predominantly used by workers in nearby offices. After 6pm the car park is free and tends to be used by people living in an adjacent housing development (converted from industrial premises with regeneration money). Security is currently only provided by periodic checks (during the day) by a private revenue firm (who are mainly checking that parking has been paid for/tickets displayed). There are no barriers or CCTV cameras. The peak days for theft from vehicles are weekdays but the peak hours are not known as most of the vehicles are left parked all day. There is some information, however, that the offences may be being committed by school-aged children, either as they head home or possibly whilst truanting from a nearby secondary school that serves a nearby deprived council estate. Thefts of cars (seemingly for joyriding) are more likely to take place in the evening. The local beat officer visited the car park and has reported piles of broken glass, empty alcohol containers and cigarette ends. There are also graffiti tags on litter bins and council furniture. There have also been some cars abandoned on the car park that have been stolen from the nearby council estate. Property stolen from vehicles usually constitutes low value items that would be found in glove boxes and so forth. Stolen vehicles tend to be older models with poor security. Common models are Vauxhall Astras, Ford Escorts and VW Golfs. Case Study Three: Violence around licensed premises The partnership have chosen to prioritise tackling violence in D Division. This is being led by the police, but the partnership are very keen to adopt a long-term multi-agency strategy. Two key areas of concern have been identified. One of these is domestic violence (not dealt with in this case study). The other is violence and disorder occurring in the town centre at night. The peak times for offending are between 10pm and 3am on Fridays and Saturdays, with two distinct peaks around midnight and 2am. There are also a number of incidents occurring earlier in the night, but these tend to be skirmishes that have resolved by the time police arrive. The town centre has CCTV coverage and operators work during the day and on Friday and Saturday nights. There is a direct radio link from the CCTV control room to the police, but this is not linked into the town centre PubWatch radios. The offences taking place tend to be disorder (e.g. drunk and disorderly, section 5 Public Order Act offences, etc.) and minor assaults, although there have also been some more serious incidents involving GBH (s20 and s18 offences) and affray (which have occurred later in the night). The victims of these assaults tend to reflect the demographics of patrons of the licensed premises; being males aged 18 to 24. There have also been a number of female victims and there is some indication this may have increased recently. Many perpetrators have not been identified, but it would appear they are also young people who are drinking in town centre bars and clubs. Again, more perpetrators are male, but there have been a significant minority of reports involving female suspects and a number of young women have been arrested for being drunk and disorderly. The local ambulance service has also reported an increase over the last few years in the number of calls for service received on Friday and Saturday nights. Many of these calls relate to intoxication, but a number involve assaults. There has been concern expressed over the number of ‘glassing’ incidents recorded by the local A&E department. The police have increased high-visibility patrols in the area, but they and the ambulance service report they are overwhelmed by the number of incidents they have to deal with at the peak times. Case Study Four: Domestic Violence The partnership have chosen to prioritise tackling violence in D Division. This is being led by the police, but the partnership are very keen to adopt a long-term multi-agency strategy. Two key areas of concern have been identified. One of these is violence and disorder occurring in the town centre at night (not dealt with in this case study). The other is domestic violence. The police and other agencies have been working hard over recent years to increase reporting of domestic violence and to reduce incidents; particularly repeat offences. However, they recognise that there is still much work to be done, particular in terms of working together to achieve greater reductions and facilitate refuge for those who need it. There are no particular geographic patterns to the distribution of domestic violence across the Division, although there do seem to be more calls for service in areas of higher deprivation. This is particularly the case for repeat calls (involving the same perpetrator and victim). More calls tend to be received in the late evening through to the early hours of the morning, and towards the end of the week, but incidents can take place at any time. There is no stereotypical perpetrator or victim, though reports to the police usually involve male offenders and female victims, across the age ranges. Very few calls involve teenagers, but other agencies have expressed concern that such incidents are taking place, but are not being reported to the police. A significant proportion of offenders have previous convictions for violence (against partners), as well as other offences. There is currently one refuge in the local area, but due to limited resources there are often no places available, particularly for women with children (and pets). The local education authority has started an awareness raising campaign amongst secondary schools, but this is in its infancy. The scheme was introduced with government funding and is seen as part of a long-term strategy to interrupt the cycle of abuse and violence that is believed to play an important role in future domestic offending. Marking Criteria for Assessments Your assessments are marked according to the School’s generic assessment criteria below, so it is important that you familarise yourself with them so you know the standard of work that is expected this year. 90+ Outstanding demonstration of scholarly application, critical understanding and analysis of subject area knowledge • well structured assignment that addresses the learning outcomes and specific criteria for the module • critical understanding/application is evident through systematic, relevant and comprehensive coverage of content • clearly communicated in a style appropriate to the assessment brief • very limited areas for improvement • accurate and consistent use of a recognised referencing system • wide range of appropriate sources 80+ Exceptional demonstration of scholarly application I critical understanding of subject area knowledge • well structured assignment that addresses the learning outcomes and specific criteria for the module • critical understanding/application is evident through systematic, relevant and comprehensive coverage of content • clearly communicated in a style appropriate to the assessment brief • accurate and consistent use of a recognised referencing system • wide range of appropriate sources 70+ Excellent demonstration of scholarly application I critical understanding of subject area knowledge • well structured assignment that addresses the learning outcomes and specific criteria for the module • critical understanding/application is evident through systematic and relevant coverage of content • clearly communicated in a style appropriate to the assessment brief • accurate and predominately consistent use of a recognised referencing system • wide range of appropriate sources 60+ Very good demonstration of scholarly application I critical understanding of subject area knowledge • well structured assignment that addresses the learning outcomes and specific criteria for the module • critical understanding/application is generally evident in the coverage of content • clearly communicated in a style appropriate to the assessment brief • predominantly consistent and generally accurate use of a recognised referencing system • good range of appropriate sources 50+ Good demonstration of scholarly application I critical understanding of subject area knowledge • fairly well structured assignment that addresses the learning outcomes and specific criteria for the module • some critical understanding/application is evident through coverage of content which is also descriptive • good communication in a style appropriate to the assessment brief • predominantly consistent and generally accurate use of a recognised referencing system • a range of appropriate sources 40+ Adequate demonstration of scholarly application I critical understanding of subject area knowledge • adequately structured assignment that addresses the learning outcomes and specific criteria for the module • largely descriptive with some critical understanding/application evident through coverage of content • communicates in a style appropriate to the assessment brief • attempts to use a recognised referencing system but may have occasional systematic errors • a limited selection of appropriate sources 30+ Limited demonstration of scholarly application I critical understanding of subject area knowledge • poorly structured assignment that does not completely address the module learning outcomes and specific criteria for the module • work is descriptive in its coverage of the content • poor communication that does not use a style appropriate to the assessment brief • use of recognised referencing system is systematically inaccurate in a number of places • an insufficient range of appropriate sources 20+ Minimal demonstration of scholarly application I critical understanding of subject area knowledge • poorly structured assignment that only address a small part of the module learning outcomes and specific criteria for the module • work is descriptive in its coverage of the content, and in places may be inadequate • poor communication that does not use a style appropriate to the assessment brief • use of recognised referencing system is systematically inaccurate throughout the document • an insufficient range of appropriate sources 10+ poorly structured assignment that does not address the module learning outcomes and specific criteria • coverage of the content is inadequate or incomplete • poor communication that does not use a style appropriate to the assessment brief • recognised referencing system is not used • sources are very limited or absent, or over reliance on one or two sources 0+ Poorly structured assignment that does not address at all the learning outcomes and specific criteria for the module Attainment levels for assessment These are the assessment levels that you will see on your feedback on Turnitin – they are based on the marking criteria above. Use the guide below to understand what they mean. Structure and Organisation: your assignment was… Outstanding Outstandingly well structured and addressed the module learning outcomes and specific criteria Exceptional Exceptionallywell structured and addressed the module learning outcomes and specific criteria Excellent Excellently structured and addressed the module learning outcomes and specific criteria Very Good Very well structured and addressed the module learning outcomes and specific criteria Good Well structured and addressed the module learning outcomes and specific criteria Adequate Adequately structured and addressed the module learning outcomes and specific criteria Poor Poorly structured and did not completely address the module learning outcomes and specific criteria Knowledge, Understanding and Content: your assignment showed… Outstanding Outstanding scholarly application, critical understanding and analysis of subject area knowledge evident through systematic, relevant and comprehensive coverage of content Exceptional Exceptional scholarly application and critical understanding of subject area knowledge evident through systematic, relevant and comprehensive coverage of content Excellent Excellent scholarly application and critical understanding of subject area knowledge evident through systematic and relevant coverage of content Very Good Very good scholarly application and critical understanding of subject area knowledge, generally evident in the coverage of content Good Some critical understanding and application of subject area knowledge, generally evident through coverage of content, but your content tends to be descriptive Adequate Understanding and application of subject area knowledge, but the content is often descriptive Poor Limited subject area knowledge and understanding is evident, but the content is often descriptive Communication and Presentation: your assignment was… Outstanding Outstandingly communicated and presented in a style appropriate to the assessment brief Exceptional Exceptionally communicated and presented in a style appropriate to the assessment brief Excellent Excellentlycommunicated and presented in a style appropriate to the assessment brief Very Good Very clearly communicated and presented in a style appropriate to the assessment brief Good Clearly communicated and presented in a style appropriate to the assessment brief Adequate Adequately communicated and presented in a style appropriate to the assessment brief Poor Poorly communicated and presented in a style that is barely appropriate to the assessment brief Sources and Referencing: your assignment demonstrated… Outstanding Outstanding accuracy and consistency in use of the referencing system with an exceptional range of appropriate sources Exceptional Exceptional accuracy and consistency in use of the referencing system with an exceptional range of appropriate sources Excellent Excellent accuracy and consistency in use of the referencing system with an excellent range of appropriate sources Very Good Very accurate and consistent use of the referencing system with a very good range of appropriate sources Good Accurate and predominantly consistent use of the referencing system with a good range of appropriate sources Adequate Predominantly consistent, generally accurate use of the referencing system with a range of appropriate sources Poor Use of the referencing system utilised, but with occasional systematic errors and a limited selection of appropriate sources Other Information on Your Assessments Below is some other information that you should find useful. Formative assessment and assessment help You may hand in a plan of your written assessments (i.e. a bullet-pointed list of what you will be covering) before the assessment deadline) for ‘formative’ assessment. Formative feedback is designed to give you some feedback on how your work is progressing before you submit it for summative assessment. You will be given some comments as feedback for the formative assessment, but no mark. The assessment must then be handed in for marking by the summative assessment date. Formative assessment is an optional exercise but it is strongly recommended that you use the opportunity. • You should allow your tutor sufficient time to look at your formative draft and provide you with feedback. We recommend that you seek formative feedback to your tutor no later than two weeks before the assessment deadline. • Please note that tutors cannot provide feedback on full drafts; tutors are permitted to look at draft plans only. Forums have been set up – one for each assessment – on uniLearn to provide additional assessment advice if it is required. ALL questions about the assessments MUST be asked in these forums. Tutors will still accept draft plans of work for formative feedback but they will not answer individual email questions any of the assessments. Reading for the assessments You are expected to demonstrate wide reading for all of the assessments. You are allowed to use the generic textbooks to start to develop your understanding of topics and perspectives but your work should be based upon material in journal articles, research reports, original sources and specialised texts, as far as possible. Do not rely on the generic textbooks for any of the assessments. Internet sources Be wary of internet sources. In general terms, Internet sources should not be used in academic work as they are not always academic. If you do decide to use an Internet source, ask the following questions about its academic merit: – Who compiled the material on the site? (Is it an academic or researcher?) – For whom was the material compiled? (Is it an academic audience?) – What is the site? (Is it an academic site? Is it perhaps an official government or voluntary sector site?) – Is the material on the site cited and referenced? (Is it, therefore, informed by academic literature?) You should always avoid user-driven sites. These include, for example, Wikipedia, answers.com, Yahoo Answers, youtube, and about.com Media sources Be careful also with media sources (newspapers, magazines, blogs, online media publications etc.). These are very often a useful source of information but they are not academic either. To err on the side of caution, use only academic texts in your work. Basing assessments around academic literature All material in an assessment should be cited and referenced (using APA 6) (see also note below about citing and referencing). That is, all of the material that you include should come from academic literature and should not be based on your own opinion, conjecture, or hearsay, while all of the arguments that you include should be supported by academic literature. (See also note above about Internet sources.) Citing and referencing All material in academic work should be referenced using the APA 6th system (as per the University guidelines) unless following a specific alternative as part of the assessment brief). Information on this system can be found here: http://www.hud.ac.uk/library/finding-info/apa-referencing/ All citations (in-text) must be included in the reference list at the end of the piece of work and all references in that list must have been cited in the main body. That is, in-text citations and reference lists must “match”. Word counts For any written piece of work you are expected to write as near to the word limit as possible. A leeway of 10% is allowed so, for example, the acceptable limit for a 3500 word essay is no more than 3850 words (3500 + 10%) and no less than 3150 (3500 -10%). Where work is more than the stated limit the marker then will grade the portion of the assessment that is within the word limit (+10%). S/he will make a judgement on the extent to which the learning outcomes have been met, and the quality of the work, against the assessment criteria. A short assessment will also be marked and graded against the assessment criteria, but you should ensure that you use the allocated word count so that you demonstrate as much knowledge and understanding as possible. Submitting your assessments All assessments are submitted via Turnitin (word documents – or equivalent for the 3500 word essay and 3500 word report). The Turnitindropboxes for the assessments are available under the Assessments: help and submission area of the module on uniLearn.

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