Part I: Multiple Choice (worth 1 point each)
Directions: Below are 30 multiple choice questions. Please indicate the best answer from the selections given.
1. One of the issues to consider in defining communication is intentionality. Which of the following best exemplifies the belief that communication must be intentional?
a. communication is goal-oriented behavior
b. communication is any interpretation of meaning
c. communication is the perception of power
d. communication is a means by which truth is established
2. Having a conversation with someone over walkie-talkies is an example of which model of the communication process?
d. Information transfer
3. Communication is considered transactional when
a. a person waits to hear feedback after sending a message
b. the people communicating send and receive messages simultaneously
c. one person is responsible for sending the message; the other person is responsible for understanding the message
d. each element of the communication process is not connected to the others
4. Selecting the word rage to label your feeling of anger is a process known as
5. I define communication as “the social process of creating meaning.” Based on my definition of communication, which of the following theoretical questions is most likely to interest me?
a. does increasing the strength of the arguments in a message lead to an increase in that message’s persuasiveness?
b. what are the communication strategies people use to defend themselves when someone is insulting them?
c. how do communicators reduce apprehension when they meet someone for the first time?
d. how do lovers co-create meaning within their relationships?
6. Littlejohn defines a theory as “any conceptual representation or explanation of a phenomenon.” Based on our class discussion, why is it important to notice the word “OR” in this definition?
a. it narrows the definition by making it too inclusive
b. it broadens the definition by including many approaches to theory
c. it strengthens the definition by making anything a theory
d. all of the above
e. none of the above
7. The ultimate goal of communication theory development is to produce an accumulating body of reliable knowledge enabling us to
a. predict, explain, and control communication behavior
b. explain, predict, and manipulate communication behavior
c. predict, understand, manipulate communication behavior
d. explain, manipulate, dominate communication behavior
8. A theorist wonders, “What are the communication strategies people use to end relationships?” In which goal of theory is the theorist primarily interested?
9. How do the concepts and theories people use in their everyday lives differ from what communication theorists try to do?
a. theorists’ concepts are more abstract; everyday concepts are more concrete
b. everyday concepts are more abstract; theorists’ concepts are more concrete
c. theorists try not to generalize because they want to explain specific communication behavior
d. everyday theories are falsifiable (i.e., can be found to be incorrect), academic theories are not
10. Conclusions drawn from metatheoretical discussions determine
a. what communication phenomenon the theorist observes
b. how the theorist should observe the phenomenon
c. what perspective on communication (laws, rules, systems. Rhetoric, etc.) the theorist will take
d. all of the above
11. “Communication is a social endeavor” is a(n) assumption
d. none of the above
12. A theorist who asks, “Should I develop a theory that will change society’s view of gay marriage?” is asking him/herself a question that pertains to the area of
13. According to class discussion, we have so many different communication theories because
a. communication scholars hold different metatheoretical assumptions
b. communication scholars define communication in many different ways
c. communication scholars adhere to different assumptions that guide ways of knowing or discovering the world
d. all of the above
14. A communication scholar who uses the covering laws approach is essentially trying to uncover
a. the social norms that influence our communication behaviors
b. cause and effect relationships between communication variables
c. why certain people achieve success in communication and others do not
d. cognitive schemata people use to interpret events
15. As classroom size increases, level of student participation decreases. This hypothesis is an example of a
a. a contextual law
b. a reliable law
c. a positivistic law
d. a probabilistic law
16. Communication rules tell us
a. whether a problem is historical or psychological
b. the difference between encoding and decoding
c. what behavior will result under a given set of circumstances
d. what kinds of behavior are appropriate in a given context or relationship
17. Which type of data would a rules perspective theorist be most happy analyzing?
a. responses to paper and pencil tests or surveys
b. actual dialogue from two people in conversation
c. responses to yes/no questions answered over the phone
d. frequency data from polling people individually
18. The following are possible explanations for the amount of distance between two people when they are speaking to one another. Which of the following best represents a rules approach?
a. if you violate an individual’s personal space they will feel threatened
b. people who want others to like them should use the distance between them to show how they feel
c. if you violate an individual’s personal space, he or she will move away from you
d. Our reaction to someone violating our space is the end result of being confronted with negative stimuli.
19. Sophia wants to answer the theoretical question, “Is birth order is related to communication apprehension?” She asks students who have one or more siblings to complete a survey that measures a person’s level of apprehension. Which paradigm is influencing Martha’s choice of research methods?
a. empiricism (i.e., she’s a social scientist)
b. humanism (i.e., she’s a humanist)
c. the systems perspective
d. the rules perspective
20. True or False? Systems theorists believe you can study a part of the communication process (e.g., the sender of the message) in order to fully understand how communication functions in the real world.
21. True or False? The property of a system known as calibration is the system’s ability to achieve the same goals through different methods or means.
22. Rhetoricians who want to “put things into an intelligible frame” have which of the goals of theory as their primary goal of theory building?
d. all of the above
e. none of the above
23. Theories about communication phenomena
a. include definitions of concepts
b. may include explanations about the relationships between and among concepts
c. concern abstract ideas
d. all of the above
e. none of the above
24. Imagine, for a moment, two different images: Imagine (1) Dr. Hubbard giving a lecture last Wednesday, and imagine (2) the use of “effective instructional techniques”. Which of the following statements BEST distinguishes between these two images?
a. image 1 is a concept, image 2 is a concrete event
b. image 1 is a concrete event, image 2 is a concept
c. image 1 is a concept, image 2 is a theory
d. image 1 is a building block of theory, image 2 is not
25. All theories must
a. contain causal necessity
b. contain practical necessity
c. be logically consistent
d. include hypotheses
26. The statement, “flattery leads to liking” indicates which type of necessity?
27. When you flatter a friend because you want that friend to like you, what kind of necessity is operating in your behavior?
28. A theory which contains only a few simply stated propositions instead of many elaborate propositions is said to be
29. Edwin went to the library to learn more about a particular theory which attempts to explain the types of communication strategies used by women to end long-term relationships. In the process of investigating this theory, he discovered that many research studies had been conducted to “test” the theory. He concludes that the theory is a “good” theory because it passed the evaluation criteria of
30. When you are unable to see the concepts explained in a theory operating in real life, the theory does not have
Please Continue to Part II on Next Page….
Part II. Ontological, Epistemological, and Axiological Assumptions
Directions: Please complete the table and then answer the questions that follow. (10 points total)
-What are each of the theorist’s assumptions about how communication functions in the real world? In other words, how would the two types of theorists answer the three ontological questions? (3 points total)
-What counts as knowledge for each of the theorists? In other words, how would the two types of theorists answer the four epistemological questions? (4 points total)
-What are the assumptions regarding the role of values in one’s theories and research? In other words, how would the two types of theorists answer the three axiological questions? (3 points total)
1. Given the table you just completed, how do you think the social scientist’s and the humanist’s theories of communication will differ?
(c) how they will differ in the methods used to test their theories (2 points).
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