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Religious and Imperial Transformations

The Protestant Reformation influenced the ideas of people that would travel to North America:

What were Martin Luther’s critiques?

Explore what these three terms mean: Protestantism, Calvinism, and Anglicanism.

What was the Catholic Counter-Reformation?

I. Religious and Imperial Transformations

A. The Protestant Reformation

1. Martin Luther’s critiques—Arguing that faith led to salvation, Luther launched a critique of the Catholic Church, whose leaders had embraced indulgent materialism as a path to salvation. Luther’s philosophies gained the attention of a wide audience.

2. Protestantism, Calvinism, and Anglicanism—Luther’s followers became known as Protestants; his teachings appealed to literate middle-class Europeans. John Calvin created his own version of Protestantism based on the theory of predestination, or the notion that God had determined salvation at the beginning of time and that humans could not control their destinies. Anglicanism, or the Church of England, was established in the 1530s by King Henry VIII when the pope refused to annul his marriage to Catherine of Aragon.

3. Catholic Counter-Reformation—In an effort to stamp out the growth of Protestantism, the Catholic Church, along with governments in Spain and France, sought to reform the corrupt practices bishops and priests engaged in and founded seminaries to generate new confidence in the church.

4. Impact of religious turmoil—Europeans of both Catholic and Protestant faiths encouraged the spread of their beliefs across the Atlantic, and struggles at home sent religious minorities seeking religious freedom in North America. Conflicts in Europe generated growth in the Americas.

As the Reformation took shape, Spain established centers of control and trade in North America

As Reformation gets going in Europe…Spanish lay claims to North America.

Notice hubs of trade and main routes of exploration.

Spain’s Global Empire Declines

What was Spain’s religious mission in the Americas?

What violence was perpetuated against the Pueblo groups in late 16th early 17th centuries?

What was the Pueblo resistance?

I. Religious and Imperial Transformations

B. Spain’s Global Empire Declines

1. Spain’s religious mission in the Americas—After 1573 the Spanish authorities determined that missionaries would have charge of new settlements, and Franciscan priests established missions north of Mexico in Pueblo villages. Some Pueblos converted, but they often retained elements of their traditional belief systems.

2. Violence against the Pueblos—In their effort to promote conversions to Catholicism, Spaniards forced the Pueblos to adopt European ways. In 1598 Juan de Oñate and his men slaughtered and raped members of Pueblo communities who resisted the Spaniards’ mission to establish a trading post. Spaniards feared retaliation and abandoned the region.

3. Pueblo resistance—Pueblos tended to acquiesce to Spanish control and acknowledged that coexisting with the Spanish could provide some protection against Apache and Navajo raids. When the benefits of allying with the Spanish seemed to wear off, the Pueblos resisted and limiting that resistance prevented the Spanish from expanding their empire.

France Enters the Race for Empire

What effects did the defeat of Spain’s King Philip II have in North America?

French policies and settlements to colonization were different:

They sought collaboration with Indian groups

A French-Indian cultural exchange was developed around trade

The French move west very quickly through trade networks

I. Religious and Imperial Transformations

C. France Enters the Race for Empire

1. Effects of King Philip II’s defeat—The English and the Dutch stopped a Spanish attempt to invade England and sought to ensure that many nations had access to North America. When King Philip II was defeated in Spain, the French took advantage of an opportunity to gain a foothold in North America.

2. French policies and settlements—In an effort to establish a fervent trade network, the French approach to colonization was different than that of the Spanish. The French collaborated with Native Americans and built relationships that facilitated trade.

3. French-Indian cultural exchange—French and Indian traders did not solely trade goods; they also influenced one another’s culture. French traders adopted Indian cultural patterns that were beneficial to trade, including the use of canoes, an embrace of women’s contributions to trade relationships, and the acquisition of skills in native languages. Indians embraced the use of European tools. Intermarriage was often a part of this pattern.

4. The French move west—As the French sought to expand their trade network, relations with Native Americans grew more complicated. On leaving Montreal, they left the Huron open to attack from the Iroquois, creating tensions in relations among the French and various Indian groups.

The Dutch Expand into North America

What were the Netherlands’ economic goals?

By 1609, Dutch established settlements in North America

What were Dutch-Indian relations like?

I. Religious and Imperial Transformations

D. The Dutch Expand into North America

1. The Netherlands’ economic goals—The first Dutch colony in North America, New Amsterdam, grew out of the Dutch East India Company, an effort to control trade routes around the world. The Dutch expanded their influence in Europe by serving as a key center for trade.

2. Dutch settlements in North America—The Dutch set up trade in present-day New York in 1609 and expanded trade routes to Fort Orange, near Albany, New York. New Amsterdam, the Dutch settlement on Manhattan Island, became the center of the Dutch West Indies Company and drew settlers from a variety of trades and backgrounds.

3. Dutch-Indian relations—The Dutch and the Algonquian Indians in Manhattan were routinely at odds. Spurts of violence and conflict grew increasingly intense and by 1643 Governor William Kieft attacked and killed eighty Native Americans. The conflict continued until the Algonquians were rendered powerless. Meanwhile, the Dutch relied on Mohawk and Iroquois trading networks.

English Establish Jamestown

What was the Virginia Company?

What relations developed between the English and American Indian groups around Jamestown?

What occurred during the winter of 1609–1610?

Tobacco Fuels Growth:

What effects did tobacco cultivation have?

Initial English local governance:

House of Burgesses (1619)

English common law

What English-American Indian hostilities developed?

The English Seek an Empire

II. The English Seek an Empire

A. The English Establish Jamestown

1. The Virginia Company—Formed in 1606 by London merchants, the Virginia Company set out to establish settlements in North America, from North Carolina to New York. The Virginia Company, in addition to fostering trade in precious metals, had as a goal the propagation of Christianity.

2. English-Indian relations—The English established communication with the Powhatan Confederacy, which supported the settlers in Jamestown for its first two years. Powhatan believed he could get English cloth and tools from the English if he continued to support them, but conflict brewed in the colony.

3. Winter of 1609–1610—Powhatan responded to a new influx of settlers by initially offering provisions, but shortages meant that the vast majority of colonists starved or died of disease. The survivors planned to return to England but were met at the harbor with three shiploads of colonists and supplies. Renewed, the English grew increasingly aggressive toward the Indians.

B. Tobacco Fuels Growth in Virginia

1. Effects of tobacco cultivation—John Rolfe discovered a variety of tobacco that grew well in Virginia by 1614, and the product quickly became the key source of economic sustainability in Jamestown. With the colony growing more stable, the relationship between Powhatan and the English grew tense and competitive, culminating in Rolfe’s marriage to Powhatan’s daughter, Pocahontas, as an effort to create peace.

2. Local governance—Established in 1619, the House of Burgesses gave Virginians some autonomy and the ability to control their own colony. Members of the House of Burgesses could tax and create laws for Virginians. The Virginia Company supported the expanding colony by arranging for more women to immigrate.

3. English-Indian hostilities—Under Chief Opechancanough, the native American population continued to have a tense relationship with the English and continued hostilities led the English to declare that they owned the land on which they had settled. Opposition to English expansion through royal proclamation and retaliatory violence was unsuccessful; violence continued into the 1640s.

Pilgrims and Puritans Settle New England

Make sure to understand the difference between Pilgrims and Puritans.

Pilgrims Arrived in Massachusetts in 1620

Why did Pilgrims voyage to North America?

Settlement in Plymouth, 1620

What was the English-Wampanoag alliance?

III. Pilgrims and Puritans Settle New England

A. Pilgrims Arrive in Massachusetts

1. Pilgrims—The Pilgrims purchased a charter from the Virginia Company to establish a community that was religiously isolated and free from the influences of Catholics, Anglicans, and European cosmopolitanism.

2. Settlement in Plymouth—After landing in Cape Cod, the Pilgrims signed the first written constitution in North America, the Mayflower Compact, and established the colony of Plymouth. The local Native Americans, the Wampanoag, had seen their population decimated earlier, and with the difficult winter, the Pilgrims struggled to survive.

3. English-Wampanoag alliance—With natives and Pilgrims struggling for survival, both sides created a mutually beneficial system wherein the Wampanoag provided the resources that allowed the English to survive. The English and Pilgrims coexisted, and the English helped to defeat the Massachusetts tribe, ensuring the Wampanoag’s dominance in the region.

Pilgrims and Puritans Settle New England

The Puritan Migration

What were the reasons for migration?

Why is the settlement in Boston successful?

What missionary work existed at this time?

III. Pilgrims and Puritans Settle New England

B. The Puritan Migration

1. Reasons for migration—Puritans had encountered persecution in England, but they also believed that God was punishing England in the form of social, economic, and environmental problems. Puritans believed New England was a fresh start.

2. Successful settlement in Boston—With a better financial base than other settlers, Puritans landed north of Plymouth and established Boston. They established a commercial, self-governing colony in which all males were political participants.

3. A stable and prosperous colony—With little difficulty, the Puritans found themselves able to self-sustain and thus expand their colony. Puritans engaged in commerce, shipping codfish, lumber, wheat, rye, oats, pork, cheese, and other products to England. The ratio of men and women was also even, allowing for consistent growth.

4. Missionary work—Puritans built a friendly relationship with the Massachusetts tribe and promoted missionary work and religious education. Some Indian converts attended Harvard College and, on a wider scale, Christianized Indians lived in “praying towns.” Though missionary work was successful, Indians continued to observe their traditional customs.

Pilgrims and Puritans Settle New England

What was the Puritan Worldview?

Calvinist principles?

God’s role in everyday life

Effects of religious unity?

Dissenters Challenge Puritan Authority

Explore Roger Williams’s expulsion (1636)

Examine the Anne Hutchinson heresy case (1638)

III. Pilgrims and Puritans Settle New England

C. The Puritan Worldview

1. Calvinist principles—Puritans believed that God had grown frustrated with Christians who strayed from his teachings. They believed that those who had received God’s grace were Saints, and that one’s sainthood was predetermined.

2. God’s role in everyday life—Puritans believed that God was responsible for all positive and negative aspects of life. They saw positive advancements as “remarkable providences” and setbacks as God’s work. This belief system allowed Puritans to feel at ease with the world around them.

3. Effects of religious unity—Puritans developed a successful colony in part out of their unity. Conformity rather than dissent was essential to the Puritan political process, but there were instances of conflict and political critique.

D. Dissenters Challenge Puritan Authority

1. Roger Williams’s expulsion—Salem minister Roger Williams criticized the Puritans in the 1630s, arguing that some were destined for hell. Williams was critical in spite of reprimands, and, on being forced out of Salem, moved south and established Providence in present-day Rhode Island. Providence welcomed members of all faiths and worked in alliance with the Narragansetts.

2. Anne Hutchinson’s heresy—Hutchinson criticized Puritan leadership on the basis of a revelation from God who, according to Puritan doctrine, only spoke to males. Charged with sedition, Hutchinson and her followers left for Providence.

Pilgrims and Puritans Settle New England

What was the Pequot War (1636-1637)?

Source: http://media.web.britannica.com/eb-media/41/123641-004-1827792B.jpg

1. The Pequot War—Puritans and Pilgrims confronted the Pequots in 1637, after both English groups realized that English expansion was fueling resentment among Native Americans. After the death of two Englishmen, English colonists, aided by the Narragansetts, launched a brutal war against the Pequots, killing about four hundred men, women, and children.

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