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04/01/19: Professional Communication (Articulation) – The submission has recurring sentence  fluency, parts of speech, word choice, and conventions errors  that detract it from the clarity and quality of the work.

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Evaluation results for Anatomy & Physiology I Lab (UG, C107, TZT1-0316); TZT Task 2 are complete and the submission needs revision.


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Overall comments:

04/01/19: Professional Communication (Articulation) – The submission hasrecurring sentence fluency, parts of speech, word choice, and conventions errorsthat detract it from the clarity and quality of the work.

04/01/19: Content – Accurately completed skeletal, muscular, and nervous system modules with scores of 100% on identifying structures, such as the ischium, Sartorius, and parietal lobe, are provided. It is aptly noted that kicking a field goal involves using the gluteal, back, and abdominal muscles, hamstrings, vastus lateralis, gastrocnemius, soleus, tibialis anterior, hip, knee, ankle, tibia, fibula, tarsals, metatarsals, and phalanges.



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You have been tasked with explaining the normal function of the skeletal, nervous, and muscular system for a football player kicking a field goal.


Explain the normal functions of the skeletal, nervous, and muscular systems for the individual in the given scenario by doing the following:

  1. Explain the basic process of movement for the musculoskeletal system.
  2. Explain the basic process of the central and peripheral nervous systems.


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Anatomy and Physiology

Football is one of the favorite sports in American sport. Kicking a ball requires a variety of skills in the leg movements which is also needed in the arms for flexibility and to ensure the ball gets into the target point. Kicking is a crucial technique in football. For human beings to perform any particular functions, their systems should work with one another to ensure the success of the set objectives. For an individual to complete a task such kicking a ball, his skeletal, his muscular and his nervous systems should work together because of the various features that the systems perform in the body (Sherwood, 2015).

A successful kick of the ball requires proper coordination, accuracy, skill, and power. The whole body functioning is necessary for stability which is made possible through the help of body muscles, skeletal, nervous and the peripheral systems. Impulses known as braking and propulsive forces are important when a footballer kicks a ball as it helps them gain momentum thus producing enough energy, speed, and strength that is required to kick the ball.

The biomechanics of kicking involves various stages when one begins to approach the ball. While executing the field goal, the kicker’s foot points toward the ground, and the side of the ball, the foot that is supposed to kick the ball swings back and almost touches the buttocks in a swing-limb process. The energy is gathered through hip flexes, and knee extensions that the foot contacts with the ball and follows through, the torso leans back and the kicking foot rises to the chest level at this period. ( Sherwood, 2015).

The kicking foot will depend on the hamstrings, glutes, hip adductors, the glutes functions to control the hip during contact and the hamstring extend to the knee, muscles transfer the ball with lack, and it goes to the target point. The central nervous system plays a significant role as it initiates movements, sends a voluntary message to the muscular systems through the somatic motor division.

The brain initiates electrical signals that are initiated by the neurons in the brain which are then sent through the spinal cord by the peripheral nerves. The role of these peripheral nerves is to transmit information from the spinal cord to the footballer’s hip; the information initiates a flexion that pulls the leg back and simultaneously follows through for the footballer to kick the ball. Receptors in the body inform the nervous systems on the footballer’s body position.

Flexion in the hip is successful due to the functions of possessing minor and contraction of hip flexors which works together with the hamstring and the biceps to ensure that the muscles are relaxed. These muscles then connect to the upper leg. Contractions initiated by the four muscles which make up muscle group of the rectus femurs, vastus lateralis, medialis, and intermedius, begins the movement of the lower leg. As a sequence, the knee then extends with the help of the contractions to extend the tibia and the fibula.

The lower leg then connects to the tarsal and the metatarsals and the phalanges through the ankle joint. The soles and gastronomies muscles then contract to make it possible for the ankle to move and the tibia anterior then tightens to hold the ankle enough for the possibility to move the ball ( Blazevich, 2013). The muscles are responsible for kicking the ball, but there are other muscles which function to hold different parts of the body so that a solid kick is delivered, the muscles are known as stabilizers and include the rectus abdominal muscles, erector spinal, gluteal muscles and back muscles.

Other organs that support the process includes joints, tendons, and muscles that provide information to the central nervous system on the body motions so that the body can perform in a way that it allows for feedback and controls the joints angles and the muscular involvement during kick and address to the ball correctly. The arms also play an essential role because it extends to the side which helps the body get in balance with gravity to support the foot.


Basic Process of the Central and Peripheral Nervous Systems


The nervous system is divided into the peripheral and the central nervous system. The central nervous system consists of the brain and spinal cord while the peripheral nervous system consists of other nerves that help in the functioning of the body ( Abbasi, Lafci,  & Akan, O.2018). The brain contains the cranial cavity of the skull while the spinal cord has the vertebral cavity of the vertebral column. The central nervous system is what is in the cavities while the peripheral is the nerves outside these cavities.

Nervous tissues are present both in the PNS and the CNS and contain glial cell and the neurons. Glial cells are a variety of cells that provide a framework which supports neurons and their functions. Neurons are more functionally crucial in the communicative function of the nervous system. Neurons that are found in the central nervous system are cells that transmit information to the other nerve cells. (bbasi, Lafci, & Akan, O2018). Every neuron has an important process known as axon which is a fiber that connects the neuron with its target point.

Another type of process which extends from the soma is the dendrites which are responsible for receiving inputs from the neurons. Additionally, there are some sections in the central nervous systems that contain cell bodies and regions that contain axons which are often referred to as the gray matter.

The nervous system is a pathway through which information is exchanged between the brain and the body. The pathway is comprised of millions of nerve cells called neurons which are joined together to make nerves. At the end of every nerve, there is a synaptic terminal which holds the neurotransmitter chemicals. These chemicals transmit impulses from one nerve to others nerves in the muscle cells, and electrical nerves travel along the neuron sacs which then releases the transmitter chemicals.

The peripheral nervous system sends information from the brain and also carries orders from the brain (Caruso Bavisotto, Scalia, Marino Gammazza, Carlisi,  Bucchieri, Conway de Macario, & Campanella,2019). Messages travel through cranial nerves to other places such as the ear eyes and the face. Peripheral nervous system carries sensory information to the central nervous system including special senses such as touch hearing and sight; it also maintains the body position.

The system also contains motor divisions which are divided into several branches, like the somatic and the autonomic branch. The somatic branch carries commands to the skeletal muscles which enable a person to perform some specific functions. On the other hand, the autonomic motor branch carries autonomic commands to various parts in the body which allows the brain to control the heart, blood pressure, breathing rate, sweat production and release of hormones in the body. The neurotransmitters send information from the sending neuron to the receiving neuron. The terminal fibers are responsible for communicating information whit the help of the chemicals which go across the synaptic gap and are received as tiny receptors in the dendrites of the receiving neurons

The central and peripheral nervous system is necessary when a player kicks a ball. The action of kicking the ball starts in the brain when the footballer considers some factors such as weather conditions, wind, and the distance between the goal post and the ball (Blazevich, A2013). When the kicker is about to kick the ball, the peripheral nerves are activated, that is the motor division. Neurons are responsible for receiving some excitatory and inhibitory inputs. Neurons send impulses which trigger the migration of vesicles that have neurotransmitters to the end of the synaptic terminal. Synapses are the sites of action that makes the footballer kick the ball.


Individual aspects of football free kick can also be applied to other sports such as basketball and tennis. The information is essential for the athletes as well as the coaches so that they are in a position to transfer the knowledge to the players to give them reasoning on how, why and what happens when kicking the ball. The information also provides them with feedback when practicing their skills.


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