fbpx

Acid Base Balance

Recognize the role that the lungs and kidneys play to maintain the pH within normal range
Classify the acid-base status of a blood gas
The two components of acid-base regulation (pH) are the respiratory and renal systems. The respiratory system eliminates acids by eliminating CO2 out of the lungs. The renal system maintains adequate level of buffers (mainly bicarbonate) and eliminates excess hydrogen ions (H+) or fixed acids. The respiratory and renal systems work together to maintain the pH within a narrow physiologic range.

Don't use plagiarized sources. Get Your Assignment on
Acid Base Balance
Just from $13/Page
Order Now

Respiratory System
Ventilation is defined as the exchange of gases between the lung and the atmosphere. As atmospheric air is breathed into the alveoli, with practically no CO2, pulmonary capillary blood diffuses out its rich CO2 content. The result is CO2 equilibrium between the alveoli and the blood. The CO2 rich air is then exhaled and leaves the body. The resulting carbon dioxide level of the blood is reported in a blood gas analysis as the PaCO2.

Chemical receptors that monitor the CO2 and hydrogen ion levels in the blood are located in the pons medullary center of the brainstem and send signals to the respiratory system to adjust ventilation. The primary stimulus for the respiratory center of the brain is the CO2 level in the arterial blood. Since the adjustment of CO2 levels is a neurologic response, the respiratory rate and tidal volume will change immediately to keep carbon dioxide levels within the appropriate range.

Homework For You

Renal/Metabolic System
The bicarbonate level reported from blood gas analyzers is a calculated number. The blood gas machine utilizes the measured pH and PCO2 measurements to derive the HCO3- level. Since the blood gas HCO3- can be affected by addition or loss of fixed acids along with loss or increase of bicarbonate, it is a representation of metabolic effects. Any alteration of the bicarbonate level is considered a metabolic problem, whether it is related to the renal system’s ability to manage bicarbonate levels or the body’s addition of acid or base.

If either system is inadequate in helping to maintain the pH, the other system can compensate to help bring the pH within normal limits. Remember these two systems; working together must equalize acid elimination to acid production by the body. If one system fails the other must work harder to maintain the proper pH range.

ABG Interpretation standard naming format:
Uncompensated Respiratory Acidosis + oxygenation evaluation
Uncompensated Respiratory Alkalosis + oxygenation evaluation
Uncompensated Metabolic Acidosis + oxygenation evaluation
Uncompensated Metabolic Alkalosis + oxygenation evaluation
Compensated Respiratory Acidosis + oxygenation evaluation
Compensated Respiratory Alkalosis + oxygenation evaluation
Compensated Metabolic Acidosis + oxygenation evaluation
Compensated Metabolic Alkalosis + oxygenation evaluation
Partially compensated Respiratory Acidosis + oxygenation evaluation
Partially compensated Respiratory Alkalosis + oxygenation evaluation
Partially compensated Metabolic Acidosis + oxygenation evaluation
Partially compensated Metabolic Alkalosis + oxygenation evaluation
Mixed respiratory and metabolic acidosis + oxygenation evaluation
Mixed respiratory and metabolic alkalosis + oxygenation evaluation
Normal + oxygenation evaluation

Prompt

In your own words, provide detailed responses to the following:

First, list all the normal values for all the items on an ABG result.

There are eight different patients below. Analyzing and interpreting each of the acid-base examples below separately. Address their acid-base, ventilation, and oxygenation status.
Identify which system is causing the acid-base problem if applicable.

Explain how you arrived at each of the conclusions as if you are explaining it to one of your fellow students.
Give the ABG interpretation with the standard format as shown below.*

In the case of any ‘partially’ or ‘fully’ compensated result, describe how you came to determine that compensation was present.

If the case of any metabolic acidosis ABG results, determine if the anion gap should be calculated. Discuss the additional information that is provided by calculating the anion gap for ABG results that are metabolic acidosis. Include the formula for the anion gap.

Mr. Archer
pH = 7.25, PaCO2 = 55 mmHg, PaO2 = 100 mmHg, HCO3- = 22 mEq/L

Ms. Hass
pH = 7.53, PaCO2 = 44 mmHg, PaO2 = 95 mmHg, HCO3- = 30 mEq/L

Mr Galloway
pH = 7.25, PaCO2 = 40 mmHg, PaO2 = 90 mmHg, HCO3- = 16 mEq/L

Ms. Bray
pH = 7.53, PaCO2 = 25 mmHg, PaO2 = 100 mmHg, HCO3- = 23 mEq/L

Mr. Petty
pH = 7.33, PaCO2 = 48 mmHg, PaO2 = 78 mmHg, HCO3- = 24 mEq/L

Mrs. Kaufman
pH = 7.25, PaCO2 = 56 mmHg, PaO2 = 65 mmHg, HCO3- = 25 mEq/L

Mr. Holden
pH = 7.59, PaCO2 = 27 mmHg, PaO2 = 100 mmHg, HCO3- = 26 mEq/L

Ms. Hays
pH = 7.32, PaCO2 = 50 mmHg, PaO2 = 79 mmHg, HCO3- = 29 mEq/L

Homework For You

Requirements:
In your own words, submit your responses, in essay form, complete sentences, in at least 400 words on a Word document. Explain how you arrived at the interpretations. The word count does not include the prompt, title, cover page, citations/references, “quotations.” Grammar and spelling count. You must include at least two references (the course text being one of your references) to defend and support your position.

Calculate the price
Make an order in advance and get the best price
Pages (550 words)
$0.00
*Price with a welcome 15% discount applied.
Pro tip: If you want to save more money and pay the lowest price, you need to set a more extended deadline.
We know how difficult it is to be a student these days. That's why our prices are one of the most affordable on the market, and there are no hidden fees.

Instead, we offer bonuses, discounts, and free services to make your experience outstanding.
How it works
Receive a 100% original paper that will pass Turnitin from a top essay writing service
step 1
Upload your instructions
Fill out the order form and provide paper details. You can even attach screenshots or add additional instructions later. If something is not clear or missing, the writer will contact you for clarification.
Pro service tips
How to get the most out of your experience with Homework Writing Services
One writer throughout the entire course
If you like the writer, you can hire them again. Just copy & paste their ID on the order form ("Preferred Writer's ID" field). This way, your vocabulary will be uniform, and the writer will be aware of your needs.
The same paper from different writers
You can order essay or any other work from two different writers to choose the best one or give another version to a friend. This can be done through the add-on "Same paper from another writer."
Copy of sources used by the writer
Our college essay writers work with ScienceDirect and other databases. They can send you articles or materials used in PDF or through screenshots. Just tick the "Copy of sources" field on the order form.
Testimonials
See why 20k+ students have chosen us as their sole writing assistance provider
Check out the latest reviews and opinions submitted by real customers worldwide and make an informed decision.
Business and administrative studies
Good work.
Customer 458115, June 9th, 2022
Human Resources Management (HRM)
It's great. I recommend the writer.
Customer 454223, April 9th, 2020
Military
excellent job
Customer 456821, August 3rd, 2022
Other
thank you very much
Customer 462327, September 22nd, 2022
Military
good job
Customer 456821, March 28th, 2022
Construction Management
Impressive
Customer 463153, July 14th, 2022
Education
Thank you
Customer 463515, October 19th, 2022
Medical Terminology
Thank you
Customer 454783, April 12th, 2022
Business Studies
Good Job
Customer 453413, April 27th, 2020
Nursing
nice work
Customer 453939, June 8th, 2020
Health Care
Thank you very much!
Customer 454001, February 8th, 2020
Statistics
Thank you for doing great work.
Customer 462485, June 3rd, 2022
11,595
Customer reviews in total
96%
Current satisfaction rate
3 pages
Average paper length
37%
Customers referred by a friend
OUR GIFT TO YOU
15% OFF your first order
Use a coupon FIRST15 and enjoy expert help with any task at the most affordable price.
Claim my 15% OFF Order in Chat