History of Jews
1. European Jewish thinkers Theodor Herzl, Ahad Ha’am, and Simon Dubnow agreed that severe problems faced Jews by the turn of the twentieth century but differed in their evaluation of these problems and of the value of Jewish life and culture in the Diaspora. They also differed in their expectations for their future. Explain their differing understandings of the problems faced by Jews and how the political and cultural ideologies they advocated sought to address them.
2. Compare the program and achievements of the Haskalah in Germany and Russia. How did the movement in the two regions differ in its ideas, attitudes, and tactics, as well as in the nature and strength of the opposition it faced? Where was the movement more successful in achieving its goals?